सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

A Planning Commission study suggests Gujarat’s poor social sector performance has more to do with governance

By Rajiv Shah 
A recent Planning Commission-sponsored study, “Refining State Level Comparisons in India”, by Pranjul Bhandari, who works as economist at the Office of the Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, has found that a “refined” analysis of the performance across 21 major states suggests that Gujarat ranks 16th in health, 14th in education and 11th in infrastructure. The analysis is already creating flutter against the backdrop of the claim by those favouring Gujarat’s neoliberal model, that state’s alleged poor performance in the social sector is more an outcome of “fudged” figures, dished out by the Government India’s different ministries.
The “refined” analysis for comparing states is considered a new and a more scientific methodology, adopted in order to find out how well states perform given the availability of resources at their disposal. It differs from the “raw” analysis, under which Gujarat ranked 12th in health, 10th in education and 6th in infrastructure among 21 major states.
For the sake of convenience, Bhandari has sought to confine her analyze across just three critical sectors – health, education and infrastructure. Explaining her new methodology, she says, “Our ‘raw’ results conform with the already well-established findings of several other studies that states such as Kerala are amongst the best performing while the so-called BIMARU states (Bihar, MP, Rajasthan and UP) are laggards. While this is true on an absolute level, it does not reveal the performance conditional on state level factors”, the economist insists, pointing towards the need to “refine this analysis”.

To provide a refined analysis, the economist seeks to “control” the three indices for per capita consumption to “put the states on a level playing field and for gauging how well the states have used available resources”, to quote her. She says, “Our ‘refined’ analysis throws up rankings which are quite different from the ‘raw’ analysis. For instance, we find clear differentiation between the BIMARU states – while Orissa, Bihar and Chhattisgarh are amongst the best performers, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan and Jharkhand are amongst the worst. While the performance of Himachal Pradesh has been most impressive, Gujarat is amongst the worst on health, Maharashtra on infrastructure, and Haryana on both.”

The economist says, “The comparative performance of individual states has become an important area of research for a number of reasons. Given the well-known regional disparities in India, a study of parts (i.e. the states) becomes important if the sum of parts (i.e. the country) needs to progress in a balanced way. Also, a study of states throws up successful experiments and examples which can be replicated or adapted by other states. Issues at the state level are increasingly dictating election outcomes both at the centre and the states, making this study important for the political class as well.”
She further says, each of the sectors she has chosen is “complex”, and “given the sheer size of resources needed for scale up, each of these three needs effort from both the public and private sectors. The public sector for instance not only needs to provide resources, but also create a policy environment conducive for scale-up.” Given this framework, she adds, “We try to analyze the long term performance of states in the provision of health and education services as well as infrastructure. We rank the states and gauge if performance across the three sectors are correlated or divergent. We compare states for both absolute performance as well as for performance after controlling for consumption levels.”
Explaining her “refined” analysis, the economist says, the performance after controlling for consumption levels “can be associated with governance – how well the resources at the state’s disposal have been used for progress in the critical sectors of health, education and infrastructure… What we do here is to control for per capita consumption before analyzing or ranking performance. This puts the states on a level playing field before comparisons are made. For instance, Bihar’s underperformance on many fronts could partly be explained by lower resources at its disposal which makes it difficult for the state to invest more on health and education. Our analysis controls for this factor while evaluating the state’s performance in delivering key services.”
Raw comparison of states: For raw analysis, the economist makes three separate indices (for health, education and infrastructure), each of which combine several widely used and publicly available variables that are available across states. In all, 21 major states are covered. For health, the economist uses both input (e.g. immunization) and output (e.g. infant mortality rate) variables. For education, she uses variables which reflect both the quantity (e.g. net enrolment rate) as well as quality (e.g. reading level for enrolled children). As for infrastructure, it is divided across sectors, such as agriculture, electricity and transportation, to ensure that the main sectors are included.
The raw analysis entails the following steps – first, the economist gets a complete data set of all the variables across the 21 states. Then, the data are stratified and a ranking is given in accordance with performance. For instance, in health ranking, higher institutional deliveries are better and the data is left as is. But higher infant mortality rate is worse, therefore the inverse of IMR is taken.
In the raw analysis following rankings are observed:In the first tier are Kerala, Goa, Himachal, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Haryana, who are found to be the best performers. However, performance of Maharashtra in infrastructure and that of Haryana in health is found to be markedly poor.
The second tier states comprise West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, Andhra, Gujarat, J&K and Orissa. They are considered “medium performers”. Orissa stands out for worse performance on infrastructure, compared to its performance in health and education.
The third tier states comprising Rajasthan, Assam, MP, Chhattisgarh, UP, Bihar and Jharkhand are the laggards, mostly comprising of the BIMARU states.
“The rank correlation between the three indices is high, ranging from 81% to 88%, implying similarities in performance across health, education and infrastructure”, the economist says, adding, “Of the three correlations, the one between health and education is the highest. The rank correlation between each of the three indices and monthly per capita consumption expenditure (MPCE; source: NSSO, 2009/10) is also high, ranging between 80% and 87%. While these are simple associations and not causal relations, they suggest that higher growth and income are associated with better health, education and infrastructure status. “
Refined comparison of states: The economist believes that while the “analysis above is insightful, it only reiterates the well known fact that states like Kerala have done well on health and education, while the BIMARU states have been laggards. States with lower resources at their disposal are likely to underperform.” Hence the need for a refined analysis, “by creating a level playing field before comparing states”.
She explaining the “refined” analysis method, she says, “We adjust the three indices created for monthly per capita consumption (MPCE). Although gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and consumption per capita broadly measure the same thing and are tightly correlated (with a correlation coefficient of 90%), consumption has the benefits of reflecting the actual purchasing power and including income generated from outside the state (i.e. inter state remittances).” Hence, the economist calculates “state-wise MPCE by taking a population weighted average of rural and urban MPCE for each state. Population statistics are taken from the Census 2011, and rural and urban MPCE from NSSO 2009/10.”
She further explains, ”MPCE works well for health and education as both are household decisions to a large extent. While it could be argued that GDP per capita should be used for infrastructure, we continue to use MPCE because … using MPCE for each of the three sectors is important for doing a comparable analysis.”
The ‘refined’ analysis throws up the following observations:
Good performers – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Bihar have been the best performers across all the three sectors. West Bengal and Chattisgarh have also been amongst the best off states.
Laggards – Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, J&K and Jharkhand have been laggards across all the three sectors.
Average performers – The remaining middle ranking states have varied performance. Goa, Punjab and Karnataka have done well in health and infrastructure, but underperformed in education. On the other hand, Haryana, Andhra, Gujarat, Assam, MP, UP and Maharashtra have each underperformed in two of the three sectors have been analyzed.
The economist says, “We also rank the states across health, education and infrastructure based on the residuals. The rank correlations between them have fallen to the 25% to 50% range (46% between health and education; 25% between education and infrastructure; 50% between infrastructure and health) compared to the 80% to 87% range in the raw analysis. This was expected given that we have now controlled for consumption which could have been directly or indirectly driving some of the similarities in rankings in the raw analysis.”
Clearly, the rankings of many states change when the indices are refined. “Thus, Bihar, Orissa and Chattisgarh have risen sharply in rankings across all the three sectors. Relative ranking of Jharkhand has also improved but it remains a laggard state. Haryana and Uttarakhand have fallen in rankings across all the three sectors. Gujarat, Punjab and Maharashtra have also slipped in ranks in the refined analysis”, the economist concludes.



हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

ભારતમાં જિસસ ક્રાઈસ્ટના દર્શન, ખ્રિસ્તી ધર્મના આગમનને કારણે સમાજ વ્યવસ્થામાં પરિવર્તન

- ઉત્તમ પરમાર  મારી કિશોર અવસ્થામાં કેટલાક ચિત્રો અને મૂર્તિઓએ હૃદયમાં એવું સ્થાન જમાવ્યું છે કે આજદિન પર્યંત  ઉત્તરોઉત્તર વિકસતું જ રહ્યું છે. પ્રેમ કરુણાના મૂર્તિમંત અવતાર  જિસસ ક્રાઈસ્ટને વધુસ્તંભે ચઢાવેલી મૂર્તિ  મારી કોઈપણ ધર્મ વિશેની સમજ નહોતી ત્યારથી મારા હૃદયમાં સ્થાપિત થયેલી છે. મારા ઘરની દિવાલ પર વધસ્તંભે ચઢેલા જીસસની પ્રતિમા જોઈને કોઈ મને પૂછી બેસતું કે તું ક્રિશ્ચન છે?

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने कुछ परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली: प्रमुख प्रस्थापनायें

- राणा सिंह   भारत में परजीवियों का एक विशाल समूह है जो बोलता है कि “सब कुछ माया है”,  लेकिन व्यवहार में यह समूह सारी जिंदगी इसी “माया” के पीछे पागल रहता है।  प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने इन परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली थी।

बिहार के ऐतिहासिक विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय के खंडहरों की परिक्रमा का रोमांचक अवसर

- सुमन्त शरण  कुछ दिन पहले एक सुदूर ग्रामीण अंचल (पीरपैंती)  से तकरीबन डेढ़-दो घंटे की दूरी पर अवस्थित ऐतिहासिक बौद्ध विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय (के अवशेषों) की परिक्रमा का अवसर मिला। विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्मपाल ने की थी। 8वीं शताब्दी से 12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक हुआ करता था। कहा जाता है कि यह अपने कुछेक अत्यंत अनूठे नवाचार के चलते उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। हालांकि, मान्यता यह भी है कि अल्प अवधि के लिए दोनों विश्वविद्यालय के बीच शिक्षण एवं प्रबंधन के क्षेत्रों में घनिष्ठ पारस्परिक संबंध एवं शिक्षकों के आदान-प्रदान का सिलसिला भी रहा था। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्रशास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा विख्यात था। इस विषय का एक सबसे विख्यात छात्र अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया। इसके प्रथम कुलपति ज्ञान अतिस थे।