सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Sexual violence: Perspectivizing the role of the Indian state


By IMPRI Team
Gender Impact Studies Center (GISC) at IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi organized a talk under The State of Gender Equality – #GenderGaps with Prof Pushpesh Kumar on the topic Sexual Violence: Perspectivizing the Role of State on 28th July 2021. The event was chaired by Prof Vibhuti Patel, who is an influential economist, feminist, and Former Professor, Advanced Centre for Women’s Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai.
The speaker of the day was Pushpesh Kumar, professor of sociology at the University of Hyderabad. He has edited the book, “Sexuality, Abjection and Queer Existence in Contemporary India”, published by Routledge. He serves on the international advisory Board of the Community Development Journal published from OUP, UK, and Ireland. Professor Kumar was a British Academy Visiting Fellow in the Department of Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, in 2009. He received M.N. Srinivas Memorial Prize for Young Sociologist from the Indian Sociological Society in 2007. As a pro-feminist thinker, Pushpesh sir wrote in the Economic and Political Weekly’s special volume on Men and Feminism in India in 2015. In 2017, professor Kumar was invited by the South Asia Centre, Syracuse University, Syracuse, to share his research on Queering Indian Sociology.
The moderator set the tone for the session by mentioning Mary Taylor, the top legislative official at the U.S. Department of State, who was with the Trump administration since 2017 and resigned post the rise of police brutality. She highlighted that Hyderabad City Police along with Hyderabad City Security Council(HCSC) has launched a program called “She Triumphs through Respect, Equality, and Empowerment” (STREE) to support and empower women victims of domestic violence and abuse. She brought to attention some misogynist judgments by Justice Chandrachud and how hetero-sexism reinforces sexism because it subordinates the female sex through its hierarchical polarity.
She lauded four professors of Delhi University, Prof. Upendra Baxi, Prof. Kelkar, Dr. Vasudha Dhagamwar, Prof. Lotikadee who wrote the historic Open Letter to the Chief Justice of India in 1979, challenging the judgment of the apex court on the Mathura rape case. Professor also reminisced that the first world conference on the status of women was convened in Mexico City, Mexico to coincide with the 1975 International Women’s Year.
Prof Pushpesh then began with the talk. He used the adage “rakshak bane bhakshak” to analogize the present-day dynamics of policing. With his works, he has explored the sexual cultures of present-day India and the predicaments faced by sexual marginalities. He juxtaposed sexual politics within popular culture, literary genres, advertisement, consumerism, globalizing cities, social movements, law, science and research, the hijra community life, chosen families and kinship, and sites that define the cultural other whose sexual practices or identities fall beyond normative moral conventions. His lecture essentially connected sociological and political issues including questions of agency, judgments around intimate sexual relationships, the role of the state, popular understandings of adolescent romance, the notion of legitimacy and stigma, moral policing and resistance, body politics and marginality, representations in popular and folk culture, sexual violence and freedom, problems with historiography, structural inequalities, queer erotica, gay consumerism, hijra suicides, and marriage and divorce.
He criticized aggressive masculinity under the folds of criminal law, and how the courts are not legal bodies anymore, but patriarchs, infantilizing women. The fairer sex is treated as easily manipulated, then commercially exploited upon. Sir gave the example of residents of the Khori Gaon area, pleading to stop the demolition of their homes and asking provisions for immediate rehabilitation, but the Faridabad Municipal Corporation (FMC) is continuing with the demolition.
He pointed to tweets by a film director, Rajamouli, and the casteist remarks in his magnum opus, the Baahubali series, and how unfortunate it is that the present government has called people who have had the wherewithal to be vaccinated with the same glorified term. Only recently, Ananya Kumari Alex, the first transgender radio jockey from Kochi died by suicide after a sex reassignment surgery. He also reminded us of that one famous instance from desi pop-culture, when the director of Arjun Reddy and Kabir Singh said in an interview with Anupama Chopra, “If you can’t slap if you can’t touch your woman wherever you want if you can’t kiss, I don’t see the emotion there.” He expressed that he looks up to the Ambedkarite model of feminism in times like these.
The discussion centred around how in 2018, Sri Reddy walked to the Telugu Film Chamber of Commerce, stripped, and sat cross-legged to protest against alleged sexual harassment in Tollywood. This move of hers gained traction and public support after the Movie Artists Association (MAA) imposed a ban on her. He scathingly critiqued the International Megan’s Law from the US, which requires those who committed a sex offense against a child to have a permanent stamp placed on their passport.
He quoted an abstract from his work “Gender and procreative ideologies among the Kolams of Maharashtra”:
“Procreative ideologies, alternatively called conception beliefs, are ideas concerning the male and female contributions to biological reproduction. Expressed through the metaphor of ‘seed’ and ‘earth’ in many South Asian cultures, these ideologies have been found to be demonstrably gendered, acting sometimes as a central variable in mediating men’s and women’s access to material and symbolic resources. Many gender-sensitive ethnographies have demonstrated the power of this metaphorical understanding in regulating and controlling the body and sexuality of women and affecting the everyday lives of men and women as gendered subjects. The present article examines and evaluates the operation of procreative ideology in the case of the Kolams, a ‘primitive’ tribal community in south-eastern Maharashtra.”
Discussants were Maitrayee Chaudhri, a Professor at Centre for the Study of Social Systems, School of Social Sciences under Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, and Dr. G. Sridevi, who is an Associate Professor at the School of Economics under the University of Hyderabad. They elucidated how beauty pageant winners are hailed by the state, however, cricketers are not associated with maternal qualities. Prof Chaudhri called for exploring the possibilities of the state, by constantly interrogating its moves, because that is precisely the relationship between citizens and the state. She gave reference to a quote from Sultana’s Dream, “Why do you allow yourselves to be shut up?’ ‘Because it cannot be helped as they are stronger than women.’ ‘A lion is stronger than a man, but it does not enable him to dominate the human race. You have neglected the duty you owe to yourselves and you have lost your natural rights by shutting your eyes to your own interests.”
Dr. Sridevi underscored vulnerable groups, a misdemeanor at the workplace, lack of social networks, and other precarious cases, like the Badayun rape case 2014, and custodial death of Mariamma. Then questions from the audience were taken up and we closed the evening with several enriching conversations.

टिप्पणियाँ

ट्रेंडिंग

हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने कुछ परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली: प्रमुख प्रस्थापनायें

- राणा सिंह   भारत में परजीवियों का एक विशाल समूह है जो बोलता है कि “सब कुछ माया है”,  लेकिन व्यवहार में यह समूह सारी जिंदगी इसी “माया” के पीछे पागल रहता है।  प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने इन परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली थी।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

दाँव उल्टा पड़ा: राहुल गांधी के रूप में हम एक साधारण इंसान को नायक होते देख रहे हैं

-  अमिता नीरव  संघ औऱ बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी पर जो सोचकर ‘इन्वेस्ट’ किया था, उसके परिणाम गंभीर रूप से नुकसानदेह आ रहे हैं। ये थोड़ी अटपटी बात लग सकती है, लेकिन सोचिएगा कि संघ और बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी को जितना गंभीरता से लिया, उनकी संभावनाओं को लेकर वे जितना श्योर थे, उतना तो खुद राहुल और कांग्रेस भी नहीं थी।

બે પુખ્ત યુવક-યુવતીન જીવનસાથી બનવા નક્કી કરે તો સત્તાધારીઓના પેટમાં કેમ ગોળો ચઢે છે?

- બિપિન શ્રોફ   “લવ જેહાદ”! કેવો લાગ્યો આ  શબ્દ?  શું મારુ કે તમારું નાકનું ટેરવું તો ચઢી ગયું  નથી ને? લખનાર અને વાંચનાર બે માંથી કોઈના મા-બાપની કોઈ ગરાશ તો લૂંટાઈ ગઈ નથી ને ? એ તો જેને વીતે તેને ખબર પડે? પરોપ દેશે પાંડિત્યમ! કેમ? ખરી વાત ને?