सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Disaster resilient housing and built environment: Imperatives for sustainable cities

By IMPRI Team 

The three-day immersive Online Certificate Training Programme on “Disaster Resilient Housing and Built Environment: Imperatives for Better Policy, Planning and Sustainable Cities”, organised by National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), Ministry of Home Affairs, and #IMPRI Center for Habitat, Urban and Regional Studies (CHURS), IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, commenced on December 13th, 2022. Inaugurating the session Ms Nayna Agarwal, a researcher at IMPRI, gave a brief background about the training course and welcomed the speakers and participants to the program with an introduction to the eminent panellists. The event was moderated by Shri Tikender Singh Panwar and Mr Anil K. Gupta.
Commencing the program, Shri Tikender Singh Panwar talked about the need for consideration of both Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change adaptability, along with adaptive strategies and mitigation strategies as important elements of the Built Environment. Further leading the conversation, Prof Anil Gupta mentioned about the four aspects of Sustainable City Systems, namely, Adaptation, Resilience, Mitigation and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and how the neglect of any of these can pose challenges in the housing system. He further gave a brief about Climatic and non-climatic disasters and housing issues in relation to exposure and vulnerability context and also covered the socio-economic dimension in that context.

Day 1 | December 13, 2022

Day 1 of the programme included Prof K T Ravindran, Urban Designer, Former Chairman, Delhi Urban Art Commission; Ms Suhasini Ayer, Architect and Urban Planner, Co-founder, Auroville Centre for Scientific Research (CSR), Auroville, Tamil Nadu the Panelists and Dr Sweta Baidya Das, NIDM & IMPRI.
Prof Ravindran shared his presentation on ‘Designing for Disaster Resilient Housing’ based on the case studies of earthquakes in Bhuj and the city of Chennai. He gave a detailed explanation of six different forms of disasters, namely, earthquakes, fire, heat, flooding, rising sea levels and the pandemic, and the ways of mitigating such disasters. He talked about the importance of factoring in national urbanisation policy, linking global monitoring systems, coordination policy between national and state levels, the strategic management of refugee inflow and focus on vulnerable groups as some of the measures in avoiding the serious repercussions of such disasters.
The session was proceeded by Ms Suhasini Ayer. She talked about the ‘Adaptive Planning and Design for Disaster Resilient Built Environment’. She began her talk by stating some facts about India’s vulnerability to disasters in the past 20 years. She emphasised the usage of data while framing policies and by factoring in the capability approach by incentivizing vulnerable populations to prioritize resilient homes by the means of investment from the public and private sectors. She explained the need for land use planning, social planning and settlement planning along with adaptive building codes and standards and cost-effective construction techniques for disaster resilient built environment. She further gave a brief about the resilient framework and talked about how disasters are not just limited to loss of life and assets but have psychological implications as well. She then talked about the problems in mobilizing the implementation of effective policies.
Dr Sweta Baidya, the final expert for the day, talked about Green Buildings in India. She began by explaining green housing as a way to optimize the functional use of space, utilize less energy, less water and natural resources, minimize wastes and create a healthier environment for people living inside, thereby, addressing the local and global environmental concerns simultaneously. She stressed the need to consider the region and area while talking about green buildings. She further expressed self-sufficient buildings as an added advantage to green buildings and went on to discuss the factors influencing green buildings, the benefits of green buildings and the criterion for green building certification. She also talked about two popular green rating systems in India, namely, Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) and Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). Finally, she talked about the government incentives to IGBC Green Building Projects to promote green building projects.

Day 2 | December 14, 2022

Day 2 of the programme included Ms Vanessa Peter, Founder, Information and Resource Centre for Deprived Urban Communities (IRCDUC), Chennai; Prof Manoj Parmar, Director, Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture (KRVIA), Mumbai and Prof Manjula Bharathy, Professor & Dean at School of Habitat Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.
The session began with Ms Vanessa Peter presenting on ‘Post-Disaster Resettlement Housing- Need for Legal/Policy Safeguards for Vulnerable Communities’ based on her experience in Tamil Nadu and especially Chennai with data about the families evicted from December 2015 (post -Chennai floods) till 2020 and the reasons for the same. She mentioned how no process was followed with the majority of evictions being carried out in the middle of the academic year along with improper social impact assessments and resettlement action plans. The people evicted did not have any prior consultation and did not receive any legal notices. Further, she stressed the need for considering resettlement as only the final option after inside development and in situ construction. She criticized the state-led evictions for having violated the human right to adequate housing. Concluding her talk she emphasised the need for legal and policy safeguards disaster resilient housing and habitats along with people-led participatory programmes.
Prof Manoj Parmar continued the session with his presentation on ‘Resilience and Community’ based on his research work considering four aspects of urban discourse in India beginning with conceptualizing the resilience research work, urban reality, need for urban theory and narration of ongoing research. He also talked about the three books that have been published based on his research work based on the historic urban planning process in India. He stressed the need to factor in cultural diversities while talking about urbanism in India because of the vast heterogeneous and diverse cultures and geographies across the countries. He also discussed the Resilience Index which has been used in his research work. He concluded his presentation by discussing further ways of taking this research forward.
The concluding presentation for the second day by Prof Manjula Bharathy was based on ‘Disaster, Social Vulnerability & Community Resilience’. She began by explaining the term vulnerability as the diminished capacity of an individual or a group to cope with, resist or anticipate or recover from the impact of a natural or man-made disaster and mentioning the four types of vulnerabilities, namely, physical, economic, social and environmental. She gave a formula for the calculation of social vulnerability as Vulnerability=Exposure+Resistance+Resilience. She stressed the need to incorporate the political-economic framework i.e., the protection, distribution and consumption of resources, and the political allocation of resources while looking at the disaster environment. She further discussed the interconnectedness of political society, civil society and the state to address the issue of disaster and vulnerability. She also talked about the Resilience Capacity Index (RCI) and the factors affecting community resilience.

Day 3 | December 15, 2022

Day 3 of the programme included Ar Romi Khosla, Distinguished Architect, Researcher and Writer; Director, Romi Khosla Design Studios; Prof Shipra Maitra, Head, Urban Development Department, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi; Prof Darshini Mahadevia, Associate Dean, Arts, and Professor, Social Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Ahmedabad University, Ahmedabad and Mr Sameer Unhale, Mission Director at Maharashtra Urban Development Mission Directorate Swachh Maharashtra Mission (Urban) and Visiting Senior Fellow at IMPRI.
The final day of the session began with a discussion from Ar Romi Khosla. He mentioned four main causes of disasters taking place in all settlements, namely, Information and Communication Technology (ICT); man-made global calamities; global warming calamities; increase in over-centralized and unrepresentative governance. He also criticized the increasing authority to govern from the top and defended the outdated cities and nations. He then talked about the psychological impacts of such disasters of aggressive behaviours, anxiety, depression and unemployment, resulting in a ripple effect. He mentioned overcentralized governments and stateless control of global services as two parallel trends that are witnessed worldwide. While concluding his talk he mentioned two multiple strategies that are not been guided by ideology Mesh Governance, changing the basic architecture of the governance by moving towards decentralization, and Mesh Information, centring shared platforms through digital information. He concluded by saying that multiple solutions are needed for multiple dangers that the world faces today.
Prof Shipra Maitra shared her presentation on ‘Resilient Cities for Disaster Management: Role of ULBs’. She explained Resilient cities as being capable of withstanding a disaster with minimum damage with competent and accountable local governance catering to sustainable urbanization. She stressed the need to organize public participation at the local decision-making level. However, along with that she also mentioned the challenges faced by the local bodies in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) including scarce human and financial resources, inadequate knowledge, lack of monitoring and an unstable political system. She also talked about the UN Campaign (2010 – 2015) to make cities resilient. She focused her talk on resilient cities in the context of the capital city Delhi and the various risks, including natural disasters and man-made disasters, that the city faces. She emphasised the need for technology and digitalization and also talked about the ongoing projects in Delhi by MCD and NDMC. Finally, she talked about the structural and non-structural disaster risk management system along with vulnerability mapping, risk assessment analysis, hazard zoning, inventory of resources for emergencies and the need for citizen participation above all.
The session proceeded further with a discussion from Prof Darshini Mahadevia on Disaster Resilience Housing based on her research findings. She talked about the varying impacts of hazards depending on the varying degrees of vulnerability and the different pathways of adaptation and mitigation adopted at the local level. She described housing as Social Protection, Housing=Shelter+Basic Services+Neighborhood. Based on her research findings in the city of Ahmedabad she stated that informal housing faces a double whammy of heatwave and water scarcity which gets compounded due to reduced green cover and higher paved surfaces. Thus, the residents of informal/ low-income housing feel more temperature within their house than in the formal house. She concluded by discussing Multiple Hazard Resilience through Hazard, vulnerability and exposure reduction along with appropriate response and that there is no general solution but rather specific localized solutions for adaptive housing.
The final expert for the programme Mr Sameer Unhale talked about the greater professionalism and better expertise in handling Indian urban disaster cases. He mentioned creating a disaster response system in the context of COVID and the lags and problems that were faced in achieving the same and further stressed documentation and debriefing on the experiences of COVID or any other disaster to avoid any such future mishappening by means of accumulated knowledge. He mentioned the operation of multiple institutions to help acknowledge and communicate with each other and encourage greater coherence, frequent engagement with the community and citizens’ engagement and participation as some of the required solutions in achieving the goal of resilient cities.
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The three-day long informative training program ended with a vote of thanks by Nayna Agarwal, Researcher at IMPRI on behalf of #IMPRI Center for Habitat, Urban and Regional Studies (CHURS).
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Acknowledgement: Fiza Mahajan, research intern at IMPRI

टिप्पणियाँ

Tushar D Gavit ने कहा…
Disaster-Resilient Housing:

Protection of Lives: Disaster-resilient housing is designed to withstand natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and wildfires. It prioritizes the safety and well-being of residents during and after disasters, reducing the risk of casualties.

Sustainability: Resilient housing often incorporates sustainable building practices. This includes energy-efficient designs, the use of eco-friendly materials, and the integration of renewable energy sources. These features contribute to long-term sustainability and reduced environmental impact.

Community Resilience: Resilient housing is not just about individual homes but also about creating resilient communities. By promoting safe and durable housing options, cities can enhance the overall resilience of their populations.

Resilient Built Environment:

Critical Infrastructure: A resilient built environment encompasses not only housing but also critical infrastructure such as roads, bridges, hospitals, and utilities. These elements must withstand disasters to ensure the continuity of essential services.

Economic Stability: Disasters can have a devastating impact on local economies. A resilient built environment helps minimize economic disruption by ensuring that businesses and infrastructure can quickly recover and continue functioning.

Reduced Recovery Costs: Investing in resilience upfront can significantly reduce the costs associated with disaster recovery. This includes repairing or rebuilding damaged infrastructure, providing emergency services, and supporting affected communities.

Adaptation to Climate Change: As climate change increases the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, a resilient built environment is essential for cities to adapt to changing conditions and minimize the risks associated with climate-related disasters.

In conclusion, disaster-resilient housing and a resilient built environment are essential components of sustainable cities. They protect lives, enhance sustainability, promote community resilience, and reduce the economic and environmental impacts of disasters. As cities face growing challenges related to climate change and urbanization, prioritizing resilience is imperative for a more sustainable and secure future.

ट्रेंडिंग

हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

दाँव उल्टा पड़ा: राहुल गांधी के रूप में हम एक साधारण इंसान को नायक होते देख रहे हैं

-  अमिता नीरव  संघ औऱ बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी पर जो सोचकर ‘इन्वेस्ट’ किया था, उसके परिणाम गंभीर रूप से नुकसानदेह आ रहे हैं। ये थोड़ी अटपटी बात लग सकती है, लेकिन सोचिएगा कि संघ और बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी को जितना गंभीरता से लिया, उनकी संभावनाओं को लेकर वे जितना श्योर थे, उतना तो खुद राहुल और कांग्रेस भी नहीं थी।

બે પુખ્ત યુવક-યુવતીન જીવનસાથી બનવા નક્કી કરે તો સત્તાધારીઓના પેટમાં કેમ ગોળો ચઢે છે?

- બિપિન શ્રોફ   “લવ જેહાદ”! કેવો લાગ્યો આ  શબ્દ?  શું મારુ કે તમારું નાકનું ટેરવું તો ચઢી ગયું  નથી ને? લખનાર અને વાંચનાર બે માંથી કોઈના મા-બાપની કોઈ ગરાશ તો લૂંટાઈ ગઈ નથી ને ? એ તો જેને વીતે તેને ખબર પડે? પરોપ દેશે પાંડિત્યમ! કેમ? ખરી વાત ને? 

बिहार के ऐतिहासिक विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय के खंडहरों की परिक्रमा का रोमांचक अवसर

- सुमन्त शरण  कुछ दिन पहले एक सुदूर ग्रामीण अंचल (पीरपैंती)  से तकरीबन डेढ़-दो घंटे की दूरी पर अवस्थित ऐतिहासिक बौद्ध विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय (के अवशेषों) की परिक्रमा का अवसर मिला। विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्मपाल ने की थी। 8वीं शताब्दी से 12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक हुआ करता था। कहा जाता है कि यह अपने कुछेक अत्यंत अनूठे नवाचार के चलते उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। हालांकि, मान्यता यह भी है कि अल्प अवधि के लिए दोनों विश्वविद्यालय के बीच शिक्षण एवं प्रबंधन के क्षेत्रों में घनिष्ठ पारस्परिक संबंध एवं शिक्षकों के आदान-प्रदान का सिलसिला भी रहा था। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्रशास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा विख्यात था। इस विषय का एक सबसे विख्यात छात्र अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया। इसके प्रथम कुलपति ज्ञान अतिस थे।