Skip to main content

Disaster resilient housing and built environment: Imperatives for sustainable cities

By IMPRI Team 

The three-day immersive Online Certificate Training Programme on “Disaster Resilient Housing and Built Environment: Imperatives for Better Policy, Planning and Sustainable Cities”, organised by National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), Ministry of Home Affairs, and #IMPRI Center for Habitat, Urban and Regional Studies (CHURS), IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, commenced on December 13th, 2022. Inaugurating the session Ms Nayna Agarwal, a researcher at IMPRI, gave a brief background about the training course and welcomed the speakers and participants to the program with an introduction to the eminent panellists. The event was moderated by Shri Tikender Singh Panwar and Mr Anil K. Gupta.
Commencing the program, Shri Tikender Singh Panwar talked about the need for consideration of both Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change adaptability, along with adaptive strategies and mitigation strategies as important elements of the Built Environment. Further leading the conversation, Prof Anil Gupta mentioned about the four aspects of Sustainable City Systems, namely, Adaptation, Resilience, Mitigation and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and how the neglect of any of these can pose challenges in the housing system. He further gave a brief about Climatic and non-climatic disasters and housing issues in relation to exposure and vulnerability context and also covered the socio-economic dimension in that context.

Day 1 | December 13, 2022

Day 1 of the programme included Prof K T Ravindran, Urban Designer, Former Chairman, Delhi Urban Art Commission; Ms Suhasini Ayer, Architect and Urban Planner, Co-founder, Auroville Centre for Scientific Research (CSR), Auroville, Tamil Nadu the Panelists and Dr Sweta Baidya Das, NIDM & IMPRI.
Prof Ravindran shared his presentation on ‘Designing for Disaster Resilient Housing’ based on the case studies of earthquakes in Bhuj and the city of Chennai. He gave a detailed explanation of six different forms of disasters, namely, earthquakes, fire, heat, flooding, rising sea levels and the pandemic, and the ways of mitigating such disasters. He talked about the importance of factoring in national urbanisation policy, linking global monitoring systems, coordination policy between national and state levels, the strategic management of refugee inflow and focus on vulnerable groups as some of the measures in avoiding the serious repercussions of such disasters.
The session was proceeded by Ms Suhasini Ayer. She talked about the ‘Adaptive Planning and Design for Disaster Resilient Built Environment’. She began her talk by stating some facts about India’s vulnerability to disasters in the past 20 years. She emphasised the usage of data while framing policies and by factoring in the capability approach by incentivizing vulnerable populations to prioritize resilient homes by the means of investment from the public and private sectors. She explained the need for land use planning, social planning and settlement planning along with adaptive building codes and standards and cost-effective construction techniques for disaster resilient built environment. She further gave a brief about the resilient framework and talked about how disasters are not just limited to loss of life and assets but have psychological implications as well. She then talked about the problems in mobilizing the implementation of effective policies.
Dr Sweta Baidya, the final expert for the day, talked about Green Buildings in India. She began by explaining green housing as a way to optimize the functional use of space, utilize less energy, less water and natural resources, minimize wastes and create a healthier environment for people living inside, thereby, addressing the local and global environmental concerns simultaneously. She stressed the need to consider the region and area while talking about green buildings. She further expressed self-sufficient buildings as an added advantage to green buildings and went on to discuss the factors influencing green buildings, the benefits of green buildings and the criterion for green building certification. She also talked about two popular green rating systems in India, namely, Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) and Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). Finally, she talked about the government incentives to IGBC Green Building Projects to promote green building projects.

Day 2 | December 14, 2022

Day 2 of the programme included Ms Vanessa Peter, Founder, Information and Resource Centre for Deprived Urban Communities (IRCDUC), Chennai; Prof Manoj Parmar, Director, Kamla Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute for Architecture (KRVIA), Mumbai and Prof Manjula Bharathy, Professor & Dean at School of Habitat Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai.
The session began with Ms Vanessa Peter presenting on ‘Post-Disaster Resettlement Housing- Need for Legal/Policy Safeguards for Vulnerable Communities’ based on her experience in Tamil Nadu and especially Chennai with data about the families evicted from December 2015 (post -Chennai floods) till 2020 and the reasons for the same. She mentioned how no process was followed with the majority of evictions being carried out in the middle of the academic year along with improper social impact assessments and resettlement action plans. The people evicted did not have any prior consultation and did not receive any legal notices. Further, she stressed the need for considering resettlement as only the final option after inside development and in situ construction. She criticized the state-led evictions for having violated the human right to adequate housing. Concluding her talk she emphasised the need for legal and policy safeguards disaster resilient housing and habitats along with people-led participatory programmes.
Prof Manoj Parmar continued the session with his presentation on ‘Resilience and Community’ based on his research work considering four aspects of urban discourse in India beginning with conceptualizing the resilience research work, urban reality, need for urban theory and narration of ongoing research. He also talked about the three books that have been published based on his research work based on the historic urban planning process in India. He stressed the need to factor in cultural diversities while talking about urbanism in India because of the vast heterogeneous and diverse cultures and geographies across the countries. He also discussed the Resilience Index which has been used in his research work. He concluded his presentation by discussing further ways of taking this research forward.
The concluding presentation for the second day by Prof Manjula Bharathy was based on ‘Disaster, Social Vulnerability & Community Resilience’. She began by explaining the term vulnerability as the diminished capacity of an individual or a group to cope with, resist or anticipate or recover from the impact of a natural or man-made disaster and mentioning the four types of vulnerabilities, namely, physical, economic, social and environmental. She gave a formula for the calculation of social vulnerability as Vulnerability=Exposure+Resistance+Resilience. She stressed the need to incorporate the political-economic framework i.e., the protection, distribution and consumption of resources, and the political allocation of resources while looking at the disaster environment. She further discussed the interconnectedness of political society, civil society and the state to address the issue of disaster and vulnerability. She also talked about the Resilience Capacity Index (RCI) and the factors affecting community resilience.

Day 3 | December 15, 2022

Day 3 of the programme included Ar Romi Khosla, Distinguished Architect, Researcher and Writer; Director, Romi Khosla Design Studios; Prof Shipra Maitra, Head, Urban Development Department, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi; Prof Darshini Mahadevia, Associate Dean, Arts, and Professor, Social Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Ahmedabad University, Ahmedabad and Mr Sameer Unhale, Mission Director at Maharashtra Urban Development Mission Directorate Swachh Maharashtra Mission (Urban) and Visiting Senior Fellow at IMPRI.
The final day of the session began with a discussion from Ar Romi Khosla. He mentioned four main causes of disasters taking place in all settlements, namely, Information and Communication Technology (ICT); man-made global calamities; global warming calamities; increase in over-centralized and unrepresentative governance. He also criticized the increasing authority to govern from the top and defended the outdated cities and nations. He then talked about the psychological impacts of such disasters of aggressive behaviours, anxiety, depression and unemployment, resulting in a ripple effect. He mentioned overcentralized governments and stateless control of global services as two parallel trends that are witnessed worldwide. While concluding his talk he mentioned two multiple strategies that are not been guided by ideology Mesh Governance, changing the basic architecture of the governance by moving towards decentralization, and Mesh Information, centring shared platforms through digital information. He concluded by saying that multiple solutions are needed for multiple dangers that the world faces today.
Prof Shipra Maitra shared her presentation on ‘Resilient Cities for Disaster Management: Role of ULBs’. She explained Resilient cities as being capable of withstanding a disaster with minimum damage with competent and accountable local governance catering to sustainable urbanization. She stressed the need to organize public participation at the local decision-making level. However, along with that she also mentioned the challenges faced by the local bodies in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) including scarce human and financial resources, inadequate knowledge, lack of monitoring and an unstable political system. She also talked about the UN Campaign (2010 – 2015) to make cities resilient. She focused her talk on resilient cities in the context of the capital city Delhi and the various risks, including natural disasters and man-made disasters, that the city faces. She emphasised the need for technology and digitalization and also talked about the ongoing projects in Delhi by MCD and NDMC. Finally, she talked about the structural and non-structural disaster risk management system along with vulnerability mapping, risk assessment analysis, hazard zoning, inventory of resources for emergencies and the need for citizen participation above all.
The session proceeded further with a discussion from Prof Darshini Mahadevia on Disaster Resilience Housing based on her research findings. She talked about the varying impacts of hazards depending on the varying degrees of vulnerability and the different pathways of adaptation and mitigation adopted at the local level. She described housing as Social Protection, Housing=Shelter+Basic Services+Neighborhood. Based on her research findings in the city of Ahmedabad she stated that informal housing faces a double whammy of heatwave and water scarcity which gets compounded due to reduced green cover and higher paved surfaces. Thus, the residents of informal/ low-income housing feel more temperature within their house than in the formal house. She concluded by discussing Multiple Hazard Resilience through Hazard, vulnerability and exposure reduction along with appropriate response and that there is no general solution but rather specific localized solutions for adaptive housing.
The final expert for the programme Mr Sameer Unhale talked about the greater professionalism and better expertise in handling Indian urban disaster cases. He mentioned creating a disaster response system in the context of COVID and the lags and problems that were faced in achieving the same and further stressed documentation and debriefing on the experiences of COVID or any other disaster to avoid any such future mishappening by means of accumulated knowledge. He mentioned the operation of multiple institutions to help acknowledge and communicate with each other and encourage greater coherence, frequent engagement with the community and citizens’ engagement and participation as some of the required solutions in achieving the goal of resilient cities.
***
The three-day long informative training program ended with a vote of thanks by Nayna Agarwal, Researcher at IMPRI on behalf of #IMPRI Center for Habitat, Urban and Regional Studies (CHURS).
---
Acknowledgement: Fiza Mahajan, research intern at IMPRI

Comments

TRENDING

Clive Lloyd among great batsmen Alan Border, Javed Miandad, Rahul Dravid,Ted Dexter

By Harsh Thakor  Few batsmen struck a cricket ball with such vengeance or contempt as Clive Lloyd, who was the ultimate embodiment of power. Perhaps no left-hander batted more like Gary Sobers. Hard to think of any left hander in is time, with such wide range of strokes or at best batting in a more cavalier or imperious manner. At his best Clive could take domination to the scale rarely transcended and was a spectacle to witness.. It is hard to do justice to the joy Clive radiated out on the middle. Clive Lloyd nurtured and knitted a bunch of talented individuals to transform into possibly the best test team ever in the 1980's.Literally led a renaissance or gave a new dimension to Caribbean cricket. Never did West Indian cricket nurture such father figure.  Clive made a great contribution in elevating the morale or epitomising the spirit of the Afro-American West Indian Community and image of black people in the eyes of the white Community. As a cricketer he gave the ultimate knock

Vishwanath has been unfairly excluded from global list of 100 best cricketers

By Harsh Thakor  Gundappa Vishwanath scaled zones in batting artistry or wizardry unparalleled amongst Indian batsmen. The best of his batting was a manifestation of the divine. He was also the epitome of cricketing sportsmanship. Sadly 40 years ago he unceremoniously bid farewell to the International cricket world, after the concluding test at Karachi in 1982-83., in January end. Very hard to visualise a character like Vishwanath being reborn today His memories are embedded in cricket lovers today when sportsmanship and grace have virtually been relegated to oblivion with the game of cricket turned into a commercial commodity. Today agro and unsporting behaviour is a routine feature Vishy shimmered cricket’s spirituality. His behaviour on the cricket field was grace personified, No one in his age defined cricket more as a gentleman’s game, than Vishy. Vishwanath could execute strokes that were surreal with his steel wrists. His strokeplay resembled the touches of a painter’s brush,

Abrogation of Art 370: Increasing alienation, relentless repression, simmering conflict

One year after the abrogation by the Central Government of Art. 370 in Kashmir, what is the situation in the Valley. Have the promises of peace, normalcy and development been realised? What is the current status in the Valley? Here is a detailed note by the People’s Union for Civil Liberties , “Jammu & Kashmir: One Year after Abrogation of Art. 370: Increasing Alienation, Relentless Repression, Simmering Conflict”:

Reproductive, conjugal rights of women in India amidst debate of uniform civil code

By IMPRI Team  A Three-Day Immersive Online Legal Awareness and Certificate Training Course on “Reproductive and Conjugal Rights of Women in India” is an initiative of the Gender Impact Studies Center (GISC), at the IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, and ran for three consecutive days starting from December 22, 2022 to December 24, 2022. The online paid certification was aimed to provide attendees with an enriching experience on the gender discourse with a special focus on women’s rights and the much-discussed reproductive rights in India.

Covid jabs: Pretexts cited to justify young, healthy succumbing to heart attacks

By Jay Ihsan   Truth is stranger than fiction – when dedicated doctors raised the red flag against the mRNA Covid-19 vaccines, they were persecuted and their concerns barred from being heard. These honest doctors unequivocally made it known the Moderna Pfizer vaccines injure the heart and human body. One of them, Dr Peter McCullough, an American cardiologist, has repeatedly issued the clarion call to people to reject these harmful vaccines. An equally alarmed World Council for Health said the harmful Covid-19 vaccines should be removed from the market and the global inoculation must be stopped. “In Japan the vaccines were not mandated or made compulsory. The vaccines are not safe or effective enough to mandate them. The day the vaccines go away will be a day of celebration,” Dr Mccullough had lamented during an interview with India’s media outfit, Qvive several months ago. Meanwhile, the number of people jabbed with the Covid-19 mRNA vaccines died soon after or have developed lifelong

Gender gap 17%, SC and ST levels of education between 7% to 14% below upper classes

By IMPRI Team  The treatment of school education in a holistic manner and improving school effectiveness in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and learning outcomes has been the aspiration of all and multiple challenges are faced to maintain and provide proper education. On the occasion of India@75: Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, as part of its series- the State of Education- #EducationDialogue, #IMPRI Center for ICT for Development (CICTD), IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi organised a special deliberation on The State of School Education In India with Prof Muchkund Dubey, who is the President of the Council for Social Development, New Delhi. The moderator for the event, Dr Simi Mehta CEO and Editorial Director of the IMPRI. The chair of the event was Prof Jandhyala B.G. Tilak, an Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) National Fellow, the Distinguished Professor at the Council for Social Development, New Delhi and also a Former Professor & Vice-Ch

Rahul Dravid exhibited selflessness in heights unscaled by any other Indian batsman

By Harsh Thakor*  On January 11th maestro Rahul Dravid turned 50. No Indian batsmen were ever more of an embodiment of temperament or grit.as Rahul Dravid. Dravid was the best ambassador of sportsmanship in cricket in his day and age. In his time no Asian batsmen did what the doctor ordered, to the extent of Dravid. Dravid was manifestation of single-mindedess, tenacity and selflessness in sport. One hardly has an adjective to the ice coolness and craft Dravid exhibited in adjusting to the given situation. Rarely did any batsmen exhibit such a clinical o methodical approach to batting.

NHRC blindly followed BSF status report on fencing farmland off Indo-Bangladesh border

Kirity Roy, Secretary, Banglar Manabadhikar Suraksha Mancha (MASUM) writes an open letter of protest against the action taken status report on restriction imposed by the BSF personnel upon the villagers of Changmari near Indo-Bangladesh border: *** I have the honour to inform you that we received one action taken status report dated 11.01.2023 from your Commission in respect of the above referred case from where it is revealed that your authority closed the case based on the report of the concerned authorities. In this connection I again raise my voice as the enquiry in respect of the above referred case was not properly conducted. Hence I submit this open letter of protest for the ends of justice. From the action taken status report of the Commission dated 11.01.2023 it is reported that concerned authority submitted a report dated 18.01.2022 where it is reported that the concerned area comes under the OPS responsibility of BOP Chengmari, 62 Bn BSF and is highly susceptible to trans-bo

Data analytics: How scientific enquiry process impacts quality of policy research

By IMPRI Team  Given the multidimensionality of policy and impact research, tech-driven policy prescriptions are playing a dominant role in the 21st century. As such, data analytics have become integral in this space. IMPRI Generation Alpha Data Centre (GenAlphaDC) , IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute New Delhi has successfully conducted a #WebPolicyTalk 6-Week Immersive Online Hands-on Certificate Training Course on Data Analytics for Policy Research, spanning over 6-consecutive Saturdays from October 15th to November 19th, 2022. Along with this, datasets for hands-on learning were also provided for data analysis and learning. Participants were required to make a submission for evaluation at the end of the course, to obtain the certificate. This course comprised hands-on data learning sessions and various expert sessions on data discourses. The course especially catered to data and policy enthusiasts – including students, professionals, researchers, and other individuals lo

Brutal assault on Delhi Univ students as fear grips present rulers on rise of dissent

By Arhaan Baaghi  Various democratic student organizations (bsCEM, fraternity, DSU, SIO, AIRSO) had planned a screening of the BBC documentary "India: The Modi Question" in the Delhi University Arts Faculty, but the guards of the university and the Delhi police along with paramilitary forcefully detained the students just because we were trying to watch a documentary that scrutinizes the role of Modi in 2002 Gujarat riots. At first when the students started screening the documentary, the electricity of the department building was cut down. Students were brutally beaten by the police and university guards. Female students were also brutally manhandled and beaten. This whole incident shows the Brahmanical Hindutva fascist nature of the government and the university authority that is working as its puppet. An activist of bsCEM was manhandled by a male security guard, who tried to pull out his T shirt. Also various female activist were dragged by male security guards and their h