Skip to main content

Dream city Dholera SIR may become even more flood prone due to urbanisation

By Rajiv Shah 
The new environment impact assessment report proposed for the development of Dholera special investment region, being planned as a “dream city” by the Gujarat government, admits that the area where the new industrial township is being planned is flat, low lying and is prone to flood, and things may aggravate in case of urbanization. 
The new draft report, “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Dholera Special Investment Region (DSIR) in Gujarat”, prepared by SENES Consultants India Pvt Ltd, for the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation, New Delhi, for environmental public hearing slated on January 3, 2013, has identified “flooding from inundation by the sea and from seasonal monsoon rains” as one of two most important problems to be reckoned with while developing the area. The other problem is that of seismicity. The DSIR is to be developed south of Ahmedabad city on a 900 square kilometer area as a modern industrial township with a population of 20 lakh in three decades. Giving reason for being flood prone, the report frankly admits, “The terrain profile of DSIR is flat and low lying.”
The report has warned, “This problem (of flooding) could be directly enhanced by urbanization, resulting in increase in the area of impervious surfaces and indirectly by global warming and consequent sea level rises.” Hence, it has stressed on the need for “planning for the risk of flooding” so that the impact of a natural calamity is minimized on “life and property of neighboring communities.” One of the steps required for flood management of rivers in the DSIR, it says, would have ensure that they are “dredged and de‐silted to ensure rapid dispersal of flood waters.” Further, it would necessary to “construct bunds which will be connected to river channels”, which would “prevent the flood water from destroying crops and property, whether flooding is from seasonal rains or from the sea water inundation.”
Pointing towards the importance of such a study, the report says, “During high magnitude flood, the water level rises in river channel and overtops the low river banks inundating the surrounding lower area. This causes flood hazard to those areas which may be developed or being developed. There is spread of flood water in the area meant for DSIR development. This is not acceptable for DSIR development, hence it is necessary to carry out flood mitigation measures such that inundation of the area even during the highest flood is averted to safeguard the properties, i.e. industries, business centers, etc. or if it is flooded, it is within the tolerable limits.“
Already, the report says, plans are being worked out to mitigate flooding. “The mitigation activities required for flood hazard are currently being planned and broadly involve bunding and interlinking of the streams passing through DSIR region along with training of these streams… DSIR is in the delta portion of five rivers starting from River Sukhbhadar in the North to Lilka, Utavli, Padalio and River Keri at extreme south and local Khadi (creek) namely Bhadhar creek, Vankol creek, Bavaliyari creek and Sonrai creek of Gulf of Cambay. The flood water of these rivers outflanks the low river banks and spreads on this entire area in form of sheet flow submerging vast land area. For this purpose, the Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) along with WAPCOS, is assessing flood hazard risk, extent of vulnerability, identify the least hazard affected area, provide mitigation plan toward disaster management.”
The overall flood mitigation, the report says, is being planned through a detailed hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling study, “using commercially available MIKE FLOOD software. One of the alternatives for calculating the flood discharge is by observed rainfall and spillway overflow.” The same is being done by using MIKE 11. “The rivers traversing the DSIR area are rain-fed rivers and hence water flow in river is only during the rainy season or till rain water precipitated is disposed off. The floods generated in rivers are dependent to the intensity, duration and spread of the rain storm and also the hydraulics of the river”, it adds.
The report gives special importance to “storm water drainage planning in DSIR is to drain the storm run- off during rainfall and manage the storm water entering into the region from other areas, to manage the quantity of surface storm-water drained into the system on account of urbanisation, and monitor its quality to reduce downstream environmental impacts.” Storm water management system would have to include:
• Flood control measures such as the formation of small check dams at desired locations based on contours;
• Augmentation and maintenance of natural streams and rivers by de-silting, increasing the depth or width based on the volume of water flow;
• Formation of embankments and guide bunds for flood control with the available soil and embankment pitching with stones and boulders;
• Canalizing smaller streams towards main streams and connecting with the main streams;
• Development of green spaces along the entire course of stream to provide recreational space and flood storage areas;
• Proposing water reservoirs to store the upstream water to avoid flooding of the DSIR during periods of high tide and heavy rain fall. Water retained in the channels may be utilized as part of the city water supply after appropriate treatment; and
• Provision of weirs across the rivers to act as barriers to stop sea ingress and the entry of silt and to raise the water level in the rivers for recreational and aesthetic purposes.
The report further says, “The proposed storm water drainage system is conceptualized to cater for surface runoff within the project area by gravity flow. Trunk storm water drains are proposed on both the sides of the roads and lateral and main drains are proposed on one side of the roads. The surface runoff collected from the catchment areas would be discharged by major outfalls into the natural streams, rivers and creeks and open land lying in the coastal regulatory zone (CRZ) along the DSIR development area boundary. To avoid flooding in the area, sluice gates and boosting system will be provided at the outlets of the drains.”
It underlines, “When the natural streams and nallahs are full and cannot flow by gravity from drains, the water may need to be pumped out. Outfalls lying in the CRZ area will be planned and designed such that water discharging from the drain does not erode the land and spread in the form of sheet flooding. In order to determine the hydraulic grade line due to backwater impact under high tide conditions coinciding with downpours, the invert levels for outfalls should be kept such that the DSIR should not be submerged during high tides coinciding with heavy monsoon rainfall.” Hence, the formation level of the DSIR will have to be planned in such a way that “it can be protected from any kind of flooding or submergence.”
Considering the flood hazard at DSIR area, the report says, “the only techno economical solution for flood mitigation is to provide bunding, such that the flood water are confined within the banks of river passing through DSIR area and the sheet flow formed on upstream side is diverted into the river channel for disposal into sea.” It adds, already, “river hydraulic for post-DSIR development is computed for whole study area. The local area storm water is assumed to be disposed of into sea by storm water disposal network system of the DSIR area, which is independent system and is unaffected due to river flood. If this is not done it will require raising of the DSIR development area.”
The report says, “For flood mitigation purpose, the river training from state highway (SH)-36, Valbhipur canal, DSIR area up to sea are proposed to be connected with the river bank embankments.” The topography of the area is such that “the river training work is required up to SH-36 for all the rivers.” It adds, “Along with this the tributaries are also to be considered. For safe disposal of local drainage it is proposed to connect the nallas and tributaries with ponds coming in drainage path and further connecting the outfall channel to other pond or to the tributary leading to river provided with river training.”
Pointing out that all this is necessary because “the terrain profile of Dholera SIR region is flat and low lying”, the report underlines, “It is in the delta of five rivers starting from river Sukhbhadar in the North to Lilka, Utavli, Padalio and Keri river at extreme south and local Khadi (creek) namely Bhadhar creek, Vankol creek, Bavaliyari creek and Sonrai creek. These rivers are east flowing rivers, discharging into the Gulf of Khambhat through Dholera SIR area. During heavy monsoon and tidal activity the water of these rivers outflanks the low river banks and spreads on this entire area in form of sheet flow submerging vast land area.”
The study suggest, “For flood management rivers in the DSIR will be dredged and de‐silted to ensure rapid dispersal of flood waters. It is proposed to construct bunds which will be connected to river channels. This will prevent the flood water from destroying crops and property, whether flooding is from seasonal rains or from the sea water inundation. Since the ground water aquifer is saline, no recharging is proposed. Interventions proposed for surface water streams as part of flood protection measures will contribute to recharging of aquifers.”

Comments

TRENDING

Mental health: We talk of poverty figures, but not increase in suicides since 2014

By IMPRI Team Highlighting  the issue of mental health and addressing the challenges involved, # IMPRI Gender Impact Studies Center (GISC) , IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi organized a panel discussion on Institutional Support for Mental Health and Wellbeing under the #WebPolicyTalk series The State of Gender Equality – #GenderGaps . The discussion was chaired by Prof Vibhuti Patel, Visiting Professor, IMPRI and Former Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai . The distinguished panel included – Prof Anuradha Sovani, Former Professor and Head, Department of Psychology, and Former Dean, Faculty of Humanities at SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai and National Core Committee member and Ethics Committee Chairperson, Association of Adolescent and Child Care India ; Dr Soumitra Pathare, Director, Centre for Mental Health Law & Policy at Indian Law Society, Pune ; Dr Swati Rane, Founder CEO at SevaShakti Healthcare Consultancy, Mumbai and Founder V

How India, Bangladesh perceive, manage Sunderbans amidst climate change

By IMRPI Team The effects of climate change have been evident, and there have been a lot of debates around the changes to be made locally to help and save the earth. In this light, the nations met at the COP 26 conference recently. To discuss this further, the Center for Environment, Climate Change and Sustainable Development (CECCSD) , IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute, New Delhi , organized a panel discussion on “COP 26 and Locally Led Adaptations in India and Bangladesh Sunderbans” under the #WebPolicyTalk series- The State of the Environment – #PlanetTalks . The talk was chaired by Dr Jayanta Basu, Director, Non-profit EnGIO, Faculty at Calcutta University and an Environmental Journalist, The Telegraph , ABP . The Moderator of the event, Dr Simi Mehta, CEO and Editorial Director, IMPRI , started the discussion by stressing the talk on the living conditions of people living in the Sunderbans Delta from both the countries, i.e. India and Bangladesh. According to the report

NEP: Education must shift away from knowledge, move to teaching students

Dr Anjusha Gawande* The Education sector in the globe is changing dramatically. Many manual jobs may be captured over by machines as a consequence of multiple spectacular advances in science and technology, including the machine learning, and artificial intelligence. A professional workforce, particularly one that includes mathematics, computer science, and data science, as well as multidisciplinary competencies in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, will be in incredibly popular. As a result, education must shift away from knowledge and toward teaching students, how to be creative and transdisciplinary, and how to innovate, adapt, and process information differently in innovative and rapidly changing sectors. The education development agenda at the global level is represented in Goal 4 (SDG4) of India's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which was adopted in 2015. Ministry of Education has announced the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) on 29.07.2020. In J

Dishonesty, corruption, manipulation and sustainable growth of mediocrity

By Arup Mitra* The theory of mediocrity would suggest that the meritorious who are always small in number as a nature’s gift will be dominated by a vast number of mediocre as the latter cannot withstand the inferiority they suffer from. By subjugating the merit, they derive a pleasure of having established their superiority. Such processes are functional in all spheres in life though the field of art is the worst sufferer. An artist mind is most sensitive and those who are meritorious in this lot possess exceptionally different traits. This makes them more vulnerable and, on the other hand, it paves the path of the mediocre to cast their shadows all around. Unjust and strong criticisms are sufficient to detract many. In developing countries, the modes of subjugation are many. Individuals do not hesitate to take recourse to criminal means as the subconscious prevalent with vengeance, accesses easily the outlets for execution. The lack of civility and the power of money form a unique com

Migrant problem during Covid and the role of equality for cohesive development

By IMPRI Team  The covid-19 pandemic has deepened the pre-existing inequalities across socio-economic groups, the distressing images of migrants’ exposure remained attached in our minds but not a lot has changed in terms of data collection and policy making since then to understand the role of equality for cohesive development. Cohesive development also means that human beings should respect the boundaries of nature which they cross at their own peril and the peril of other living beings on earth. In lieu to this, The State of Development Discourses – #CohesiveDevelopment, #IMPRI Center for Human Dignity and Development (CHDD) , #IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute , New Delhi organized #WebPolicyTalk with Prof Amiya Kumar Bagchi, on The Role of Equality for Cohesive Development. The session is inaugurated by Ms Mahima Kapoor, researcher and assistant editor at IMPRI. Ms Mahima Kapoor extended her gratitude to the speaker, moderator and the discussant. The moderator for the eve

Parallel govts: How unity of various streams of freedom movements took shape in India

By Bharat Dogra  In one of the most inspiring examples of highly courageous spontaneous actions based on the unity of people, parallel governments were formed by freedom fighters in several parts of India in the course of the Quit India Movement in 1942. Although generally four such leading efforts have been identified in Satara (Maharashtra), Talcher (Odisha), Tamluk (West Bengal) and Ballia (Uttar Pradesh), there were some other smaller efforts as well such as those in Bhagalpur (Bihar) and Gurpal (Balasore, Odisha). It is very interesting to see in most of these efforts (also very significant for understanding the freedom movement) that there was constant merging of the various streams of the freedom movement, with more militant activities openly taking place with the help of quickly mobilized militias and this being combined with various constructive programs emphasized by Mahatma Gandhi such as anti-liquor efforts and anti-untouchability movements. In addition we see actions in

West Bengal police inaction in immoral trafficking case of a Muslim woman

Kirity Roy, Secretary, Banglar Manabadhikar Suraksha Mancha (MASUM) writes to the Chairman, National Human Rights Commission, on Muslim woman victim trafficking, police inaction, and need immediate rescue: I am writing to inform you about a case of illegal trafficking and profuse police inaction regarding the same of a marginalized Muslim teenager named Anima Khatun (name changed), daughter of Mr. Osman Ali. The victim and her husband had been residents of the village Daribas, under Dinhata police station Cooch Behar district since their marriage in 2014. Six months following their marriage, Anima Khatun along with her husband, sister-in-law, sister-in-law's husband as well as her in-laws shifted to Delhi in search of work. They stayed there for 2 years after which they all came back to their native village. They stayed at their native residence for about one month and then they went back to Delhi. In Delhi, Anima was in touch with her family till the next six months, after which t

Impact of climate change on Gujarat pastoralists' traditional livelihood

By Varsha Bhagat-Ganguly, Karen Pinerio* We are sharing a study[1] based learning on climate resilience and adaptation strategies of pastoralists of Kachchh district, Gujarat. There are two objectives of the study: (i) to examine the impact of climate on traditional livelihood of pastoralists of Gujarat state; and (ii) to explore and document the adaptation strategies of pastoralists in mitigating climate adversities, with a focus on the role of women in it. In order to meet these objectives, the research inquiries focused on how pastoralists perceive climate change, how climate change has impacted their traditional livelihood, i.e., pastoralism in drylands (Kr├Ątli 2015), and how these pastoral families have evolved adaptation strategies that address climate change (CC)/ variabilities, i.e., traditional livelihood of pastoralists of Kachchh district, Gujarat state. Pastoralism is more than 5,000 years old land-use strategy in India; it is practised by nomadic (their entire livelihood r

Bangladesh sets shining example of communal peace, harmony in South Asia

By Dr. Abantika Kumari Bangladesh is made up of 160 million people who are multi-religious, multi-ethnic, and multi-lingual. The Constitution of Bangladesh guarantees all citizens the freedom to freely and peacefully practice their chosen religions. Religious minorities make up roughly 12% of Bangladesh's present population, according to conservative estimates . Hindus account for 10% of the population, Buddhists for 1%, Christians at 0.50 percent, and ethnic minorities for less than 1%. As an example of how people of different religions can live together, cooperate together, and simply be together, Bangladesh is regarded. Bangladesh is a country that values religious liberty, harmony, and tolerance. Bangladesh's population is made up of a diverse spectrum of religious groupings and ethnic groups. Such communities and groups live in harmony, putting aside their differences and learning to embrace and respect the diverse and diversified culture that has contributed to Bangladesh

Political leaders' actions are causing decontextualisation of democracy

By Harasankar Adhikari In India, does democracy become a matter of prescription, i.e., to follow the footpath left? Isn't it, in some ways, the adoption of certain prescribed procedures and mechanisms, such as timely election and populist schemes for the poor, etc.? In some cases, acts of government and governance turn democracy into a myth. It is full of political party-based agendas. This continuous hegemonic practise creates a conditional situation for the people of India. People elect their representatives who are not their representatives. They are only representatives of a particular political party that nominated them in the election. Democratic decentralisation of power is undoubtedly a unique step towards the grass roots. But a Panchayat member has no free will to act without the party’s instruction and approval. Michael Saward, a political philosopher, defines democracy as a matter of correspondence in state-society relationships. But India’s parliamentary democracy is un