सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Gujarat slips in higher education ranking, gender parity index in 18-23 age group

By Rajiv Shah
The All-India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE), operating under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, in its recent report has suggested that Gujarat’s gross enrollment ratio (GER) in higher education, which was 21.3 per cent of the population in the age group 18-23 in 2010-11, went down to 17.6 per cent a year later – in 2011-12. Worse, Gujarat’s GER ranking fell from ninth among 20 major states in 2010-11 to 13th in 2011-12. The AISHE report also indicates that while Gujarat’s GER performance was above national average (19.4 per cent of the population in the 18-23 age group) in 2010-11, in 2011-12, the GER nationally improved to 20.4 per cent, which pushed Gujarat below the national average.
In absolute terms, the AISHE data suggest, in Gujarat, in 2011-12, a total of 12,54,202 students in the age group 18-23 were enrolled in higher education, of which 7,31,241 were boys and 5,22,961 girls. Significantly, this was down from the enrollment in 2010-11, when a total of 14,53,726 students in this age group were enrolled – 8,47,044 of them boys and 6,06,682 girls. This happened at a time when, at the national level, total enrolment went up from 2,74,99,749 (1,54,66,559 boys and 1,20,33,190 girls) in 2010-11 to 2,85,62,693 (1,58,74,800 boys and 1,26,87,893 girls) in 2011-12.
AISHE report suggests that, in 2011-12, Tamil Nadu had the best GER with 38.2 per cent, followed by Haryana 27.2 per cent, Andhra Pradesh 27.6 per cent, Maharashtra 27.4 per cent, Himachal Pradesh 25 per cent, Karnataka 24 per cent, Jammu & Kashmir 23.7 per cent, Kerala 23.1 per cent, Punjab 20 per cent, Rajasthan 18 per cent, and Gujarat 17.6 per cent. Mainly of the so-called Bimaru states performed worse than Gujarat – Madhya Pradesh 17.4 per cent, UP 16.8 per cent, Odisha 16.3 per cent, Assam 14.4 per cent, Bihar 13.1 per cent, West Bengal 12.8 per cent, Chhattisgarh 11 per cent, and Jharkhand 8.4 per cent.
Girls’ enrolment in higher education further suggests neglect of the girl child in the age group 18-23 in Gujarat. In Gujarat, the female GER in higher education in the age group 18-23 was 15.7 per cent in 2011-12, which is down from 18.8 per cent GER in 2010-11. The national GER for girls in higher education in 2011-12 was three percentage points better than Gujarat’s – 18.9 per cent. In 2011-12, as many as 12 states witnessed a better GER for girls in higher education than Gujarat – the best being Tamil Nadu with 35.2 per cent, followed by Uttarakhand, Haryana, Kerala, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Not without reason, the gender parity index in higher education in Gujarat, according to the AISHE report, was 0.81 (or 81 girls against every 100 boys) in 2011-12, which is less than the national average of 0.88. And, instead of improving, it has shown a downward trend – in 2010-11 the gender parity ratio in higher education Gujarat was 0.80. Gujarat’s GER in 2011-12, in fact, was worse than such “poor” states such as Assam (0.98), Jharkhand (0.84), and Chhattisgarh (0.82), not to talk of states which are considered progressive – Kerala (.139), Haryana (0.96), Himachal Pradesh (0.94), Karnataka (0.90), Tamil Nadu (0.86), and Maharashtra (0.84).
Though the Gujarat government claims that higher education in the state has been expanding, figures suggests that, in Gujarat, there are 25 colleges per lakh population in the age group 18-23, equal to the all-India average. This is lower than several states, including Andhra Pradesh (48 colleges), Karnataka (44 colleges), Himachal Pradesh (38 colleges), Haryana (33 colleges), Maharashtra (34 colleges), Rajasthan 32 colleges, Uttarakhand (32 colleges), Kerala (30 colleges) and Tamil Nadu (30 colleges).

It is ironical that the AISHE report has been released at a time when Gujarat has, over the last five years, been stressing excessively on skill development and technical education, claiming itself to an all-India model for other states to follow. It even got a report prepared by a Government of India agency, National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), titled “District wise skill gap study for the State of Gujarat (2012-17, 2017-22)” in order to identify the type of skills that the state would need at a time when “Gujarat has emerged as industrial agglomerate”. The NSDC employed top international consultants, KPMG, to do the job for Gujarat. KPMG has worked as consultants with the state government to promote industrial investment for several years.
Even as praising lack of skills, according to the KPMG, has led to a situation where there is an “in-ward migration” from other states into Gujarat. For instance, it says, “Non-availability of skilled professionals for ship-building and ship-breaking industries forces industrial units to acquire skilled professionals from southern states like Tamil Nadu.” It adds, while an even higher proportion of workers come as groups from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar as contract workers for working in the industry in Gujarat, there is a need for “adequate skilling of local youth in related segments” in order to “provide local employment opportunities.”
According to KPMG estimates, an additional increase in incremental manpower requirement during XII plan (2012-17) and XIII plan (2017-22) periods will be 3 million and 2.65 million. “Significant portion of the new jobs created, especially in agri-allied activities (0.42 million during XII Plan), construction (0.26 million during XII Plan), trade and retail (0.21 million during XII Plan) and textiles (0.16 million during XII Plan) would witness mere realignment of workforce displaced from agriculture — due to the expected impact of mechanization on cultivation activities”, the KPMG believes.
Underlining lack of trained manpower in Gujarat, the KPMG says, “In order to promote economic and industrial development in a state, the essential requirement is the capacity to develop skilled manpower of good quality in adequate number.” It adds, “Gujarat being an industrially developed state with significant opportunities for organized employment, there is an ever increasing need for graduates and skilled professionals.”
“While Gujarat has a marginally better penetration of higher education compared to national average, other progressive knowledge economies like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have higher penetration than Gujarat”, the KPMG says, adding, “Low affordability for private education in rural areas is the key reason for limited interest from private players. Government policies on capacity creation have been traditionally based on population prorate basis in a region. This has resulted in limited capacities across rural areas leading to fewer graduating students due to either non-enrollment in higher education or high drop-out rate at the school level.”
The following table suggests inter-state comparison of gross enrollment ratio for the years 2010-11 and 2011-12:

टिप्पणियाँ

ट्रेंडिंग

हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

देशव्यापी ग्रामीण भारत बंध में उतरे मध्य प्रदेश के आदिवासी, किया केंद्र सरकार का विरोध

- हरसिंग जमरे, भिखला सोलंकी, रतन अलावे*  15 और 16 फरवरी को निमाड के बड़वानी, खरगोन और बुरहानपुर में जागृत आदिवासी दलित संगठन के नेतृत्व में आदिवासी महिला-पुरुषों ग्रामीण भारत बंद में रैली एवं विरोध प्रदर्शन किया । प्रधान मंत्री द्वारा 2014 में फसलों की लागत का डेढ़ गुना भाव देने का वादा किया गया था, 2016 में किसानों की आय दुगना करने का वादा किया गया था । आज, फसलों का दाम नहीं बढ़ रहा है, लेकिन खेती में खर्च बढ़ता जा रहा है! खाद, बीज और दवाइयों का दाम, तीन-चार गुना बढ़ चुका है! किसानों को लागत का डेढ़ गुना भाव देने के बजाए, खेती को कंपनियों के हवाले करने के लिए 3 काले कृषि कानून लाए गए । 3 काले कानून वापस लेते समय प्रधान मंत्री ने फिर वादा किया था कि फसलों की लागत का डेढ़ गुना भाव की कानूनी गारंटी के लिए कानून बनाएँगे, लेकिन वो भी झूठ निकला! आज जब देश के किसान दिल्ली में आपको अपना वादा याद दिलाने आए है, तब आप उनका रास्ता रोक रहें है, उनके साथ मारपीट कर उन पर आँसू गैस फेंक रहें हैं, उन पर छर्रों से फायरिंग कर रहें है! देश को खिलाने वाला किसान खुद भूखा रहे, क्या यही विकास है?

18થી નાની ઉંમરના 1,15,129 બાળકો શાળા બહાર? વાસ્તવિક આંકડો 15-20 ગણો વધું

- સુખદેવ પટેલ*  16 એપ્રિલથી સમગ્ર ગુજરાતમાં શાળા બહારના 6 થી 19 વર્ષની ઉંમરના બાળકોનો સર્વે શરૂ થયો છે.  જે 26 એપ્રિલ સુધી ચાલશે. જેની જવાબદારી સરકારી શાળાના શિક્ષકોને સોંપવામાં આવી છે. અત્યારે પ્રાથમિક શાળાઓમાં વાર્ષિક પરીક્ષાઓ ચાલી રહી છે. લોકસભાની ચૂંટણીઓના કામ પણ શિક્ષકોને ભાગે કરવાના આવશે. શિક્ષકો કેટલું કરી શક્શે? શિક્ષકો પાસેથી વ્યાજબી રીતે કેટલી અપેક્ષાઓ રાખવી જોઈએ? RTE ની જોગવાઈઓ મુજબ દરેક બાળક શિક્ષણ મેળવી શકે, તે માટે શાળા બહારના બાળકોને સર્વે કરીને શોધી કાઢવાનું ઉમદા કામ સરકાર વિચારે છે, તે આવકારદાયક છે. આવાં ઉત્તમ કામમાં જેમને સીધો લાભ થવાનો છે,  તેવાં હિતધારકોની પ્રતિનિધિ સમિતિ SMC સ્કૂલ મેનેજમેન્ટ કમિટી આ જવાબદારી સારી રીતે ઉપાડી શકે તેમ છે. શિક્ષણ વિભાગ SSA તરફથી આ કામગીરીમાં SMC ની ભાગીદારીનું આયોજન કરીને યોગ્ય માર્ગદર્શિકા તૈયાર કરવી જોઈએ.

How the slogan Jai Bhim gained momentum as movement of popularity and revolution

By Dr Kapilendra Das*  India is an incomprehensible plural country loaded with diversities of religions, castes, cultures, languages, dialects, tribes, societies, costumes, etc. The Indians have good manners/etiquette (decent social conduct, gesture, courtesy, politeness) that build healthy relationships and take them ahead to life. In many parts of India, in many situations, and on formal occasions, it is common for people of India to express and exchange respect, greetings, and salutation for which we people usually use words and phrases like- Namaskar, Namaste, Pranam, Ram Ram, Jai Ram ji, Jai Sriram, Good morning, shubha sakal, Radhe Radhe, Jai Bajarangabali, Jai Gopal, Jai Jai, Supravat, Good night, Shuvaratri, Jai Bhole, Salaam walekam, Walekam salaam, Radhaswami, Namo Buddhaya, Jai Bhim, Hello, and so on.

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

स्वास्थ्य सेवाओं को मजबूत करने के बजाय बीमा आधारित सेवाओं को प्राथमिकता क्यों?

- राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य अधिकार अभियान  वैश्विक स्तर पर “विश्व स्वास्थ्य दिवस” इस साल “हमारा स्वास्थ्य, हमारा अधिकार” की अवधारणा को केन्द्रित कर मनाया जा रहा है। इस उपलक्ष्य में राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर स्वास्थ्य अधिकार संघर्ष को मजबूत करने के लिए, संवैधानिक और नीतिगत रूप में स्वास्थ्य को मौलिक अधिकार बनाने के लिए, स्वास्थ्य के विभिन्न आयामों को लोगों के हक के लिए संगठित करने, जागरूक करने और स्वास्थ्य के मानकों पर कार्य करने हेतु तथा सरकार को जनता के प्रति जिम्मेदार बनाने हेतु जन आंदोलनों के राष्ट्रीय समन्वय ने स्वास्थ्य अधिकार अभियान के माध्यम से जनता के पक्ष को मजबूत करने के लिए राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर स्वास्थ्य अधिकार के मुद्दे पर सक्रिय रूप से कार्य करेगा।

અમદાવાદ પોલિસ કમિશનરનું જાહેરનામું: નાગરિક સ્વાતંત્ર્ય પર તરાપ મારવાની પ્રક્રિયાનો એક ભાગ

- હેમંતકુમાર શાહ  અમદાવાદના પોલિસ કમિશનરનું લોકશાહી વિરોધી વધુ એક પગલું ચૂંટણી ટાણે જોવા મળ્યું છે.   તા. ૧૬-૦૪-૨૦૨૪ના રોજ તેમણે એક જાહેરનામું બહાર પાડીને ફોજદારી કાર્યવાહી અધિનિયમ-૧૯૭૩ની કલમ-૧૪૪ આખા શહેરમાં લાગુ કરી જણાવ્યું છે કે "કોઈ પણ પ્રચારપ્રસાર રેલી દરમ્યાન કોઈ એ કાળા વાવટા ફરકાવવા નહિ કે ઉશ્કેરણીજનક બેનર કે પ્લે કાર્ડ બતાવવું નહિ અથવા કોઈ વિરોધમાં ઉશ્કેરણીજનક સૂત્રોચ્ચાર કરવો નહિ."

न नौकरियाँ, न पर्याप्त मजदूरी, न राहत: अनौपचारिक श्रमिकों के लिए मोदी की विरासत

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क्या कांग्रेस का घोषणापत्र मुस्लिम लीग की सोच को प्रतिबिंबित करता है?

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