सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Education and Union Budget: No talk about multidisciplinary research, humanities

By IMPRI Team
 
The #IMPRI Center for ICT for Development (CICTD), Impact and Policy Research Institute (IMPRI), New Delhi, hosted an interactive panel discussion on the topic “Education and Union Budget 2023-24”, on February 5, 2023, under the IMPRI 3rd Annual Series of Thematic Deliberations and Analysis of Union Budget 2023-24, as part of IMPRI #WebPolicyTalk. The discussion was chaired and moderated by Dr Sachidanand Sinha, Retired Professor of JNU, New Delhi and Visiting Professor at IMPRI.
The session was inaugurated by Ms Zubiya Moin, a researcher at IMPRI, who welcomed and gave a brief introduction to the chair and panelists of the discussion. The Panelists for the discussion included Prof Mona Khare, Professor and Head of Department of Educational Finance, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi; Dr Suresh Y Reddy, Director, SRF Foundation, Gurugram; Professor Soumen Chattopadhyay, Chairperson of Zakir Husain Centre for Educational Studies, JNU; Advocate Anubha Srivastav Sahay, President, India Wide Parents Association, and Child Rights Activist and Dr Protiva Kundu, Thematic lead, Social Sectors, Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability, New Delhi.
Initiating the discussion, Dr Sinha said although the impetus given to teachers’ training in this Budget is encouraging, yet we do not have much idea or figures about how DIET (District Institute of Education and Training), is actually providing academic and resource support at the grassroots level. Also there is no clarity on allocation about tribal education and questions remain on provisioning of the schemes within the budgetary framework.
Laying down bare statistics, Dr Protiva Kundu highlighted that 67% of schools in India have functional electricity and its connection ranges from about 25% in Manipur to 100 % in Delhi. Only 16% of schools have digital access and barely 1.2% of schools have digital libraries. And about 40% of teachers have computer literacy. She talked about prioritizing three things before fund allocation and beginning new schemes, these being the Analysis of the Current Socio-Economic Situation, the Scenario likely to Prevail in the Future, and the Direction which Education is taking. Other priority areas being Inclusive Development and Reaching Out to the Last Mile.
Focusing on the size of school education, Dr Kundu informed that there are 15 lakh schools, 27 crore students and 95 lakh teachers in government schools in India. Although this year’s Budget has set aside ₹1.12 lakh crore for education — said to be the highest ever allocation and an increase of around 8.2% over 2022-23 budgetary provisions, yet there are several lacunae.
Dr Kundu pointed out that the additional money would go to the Kendriya Vidyalayas, Navodaya Vidyalayas, and the PM Shree Schools, which are supposed to be exemplary schools to implement the NEP, so the focus is primarily on the central government’s model schools. But these cater to only about 21 lakh students leaving about the 15 crore students in government schools in their prior dismal state. Although these students are covered under Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) which is also a vehicle for NEP, focused on fundamental literacy and numeracy, there has been drastic degeneration in reading and mathematical ability due to the pandemic in the last two years.
Dr Kundu said the government is now going to go for result-based financing for select schemes. But for educational schemes, we have not reached the stage where we can link outcomes with finance. Talking further about the revised SSA guidelines, she mentioned that provisions have been made for in-service teachers training in a blended form that is both online and office. But there are reservations about online training. Considering the socio-economic situation in different parts of India, accessing basic education should be made more important than accessing online education. This thrust on digitisation for school education should now be utilised for administrative work rather than for teaching, according to Dr Kundu.
Another important lapse in the Budget is the stopping the pre-matric scholarship for students of class 1 to 8 based on the argument of elementary education being already free. However, she stressed on the need for scholarships to reach the last mile and to create a level playing field because their are still expenses incurred on purchasing books and notebooks.
Echoing her thoughts, Dr Suresh Y Reddy said the digitization of schools and their curriculum is welcome but schools require digital infrastructure, internet connectivity, LCDs, Monitors, and enhanced teacher capability to become functional. But the government has levied GST from 18% to 28 % for procurement of IT equipment which is a hindrance. And no provision has been made for waiving off GST in this Budget. Waiving off GST would bring more money into the system and more e-content and development of software can be advanced.
Apart from GST, Dr Reddy pointed out in the last decade, annual school education growth rate has been a mere 2% while annual growth in higher education has been 6%, i.e., actual spending is not enough. So in every aspect of schooling, there is a deficit. And there is a dire need to remodel the DIET. Also Rs 25000 crore CSR Budget is available which can be utilized to build up model schools. So leveraging corporates’ help can transform school education but the Budget is not saying anything on this aspect.
Touching upon the vocationalisation of education, Dr Soumen Chattopadhyay said the enrolment in vocational education is aimed at 50% by 2025 and the gross enrolment ratio is targeted at 50% by 2030. There is also an emphasis on digitization which means there is bound to be a fall in average cost, and the Budget would not commensurately grow with the rise in the enrolment ratio.
Speaking on skilling India, Dr Chattopadhya said there has been a budgetary increase of 12.5%, basically due to the National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS) but it is linked with MSME, which are currently not doing very well. There is also an intent showing in the Budget that individuals and institutions should borrow, spend and fund their own education, if it is to compete with the world class Universities. If this concept is being proposed, there is bound to be an increase in tuition fees. Also there is no funding for research and innovation.
Thinking on the same line, Dr Mona Khare said there is literally no talk about multi-disciplinary universities, research universities, social sciences and humanities subjects. She said this year’s Budget focuses mainly on Engineering, Technology, Medical and Nursing sectors but there is little continuity on vocationalisation of higher education in this Budget, although it has been the major thrust point of NEP.
Talking about the revenue component of higher education, Dr Khare said the higher education institutes have depended on HEFA (Higher Education Financing Agency) but from the last Budget there has been a fall in HEFA allocation and this Budget does not talk about HEFA at all.
Dr Khare questioned whether the government now believes that our higher education sector has reached a certain threshold in good quality infrastructure and does not need any more funding or whether are we going to leave out public institutions to the markets. The underlying thought is that public institutions should manage 30% of their expenditure on their own.
She also stressed that NEP has vociferously talked about inclusion and equity but this Budget does not talk about Socio-Economic Disadvantaged Groups (SEDG), transgender or gifted children. Also, there has been no talk about training teachers in the higher education sector. Also, there has been under-utilization of funds in most schemes.
Advocate Anubha Srivastava touched upon access, equity, quality and accountability under the NEP and emphasized the dearth of funds and aid for school education. She also said mentoring of schemes is an important part of the process.
After a question and answer session, the program concluded with closing remarks by Dr. Sachidanand Sinha , who thanked and praised the team at the IMPRI Impact and Policy Research Institute for hosting a successful panel discussion and for ensuring the smooth functioning of the event. The event was concluded with a final vote of thanks by Ms. Zubiya Moin on behalf of the IMPRI Center for ICT for Development (CICTD).
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Acknowledgement: Jiyan Roytalukdar, a researcher at IMPRI

टिप्पणियाँ

ट्रेंडिंग

हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

दाँव उल्टा पड़ा: राहुल गांधी के रूप में हम एक साधारण इंसान को नायक होते देख रहे हैं

-  अमिता नीरव  संघ औऱ बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी पर जो सोचकर ‘इन्वेस्ट’ किया था, उसके परिणाम गंभीर रूप से नुकसानदेह आ रहे हैं। ये थोड़ी अटपटी बात लग सकती है, लेकिन सोचिएगा कि संघ और बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी को जितना गंभीरता से लिया, उनकी संभावनाओं को लेकर वे जितना श्योर थे, उतना तो खुद राहुल और कांग्रेस भी नहीं थी।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

બે પુખ્ત યુવક-યુવતીન જીવનસાથી બનવા નક્કી કરે તો સત્તાધારીઓના પેટમાં કેમ ગોળો ચઢે છે?

- બિપિન શ્રોફ   “લવ જેહાદ”! કેવો લાગ્યો આ  શબ્દ?  શું મારુ કે તમારું નાકનું ટેરવું તો ચઢી ગયું  નથી ને? લખનાર અને વાંચનાર બે માંથી કોઈના મા-બાપની કોઈ ગરાશ તો લૂંટાઈ ગઈ નથી ને ? એ તો જેને વીતે તેને ખબર પડે? પરોપ દેશે પાંડિત્યમ! કેમ? ખરી વાત ને? 

बिहार के ऐतिहासिक विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय के खंडहरों की परिक्रमा का रोमांचक अवसर

- सुमन्त शरण  कुछ दिन पहले एक सुदूर ग्रामीण अंचल (पीरपैंती)  से तकरीबन डेढ़-दो घंटे की दूरी पर अवस्थित ऐतिहासिक बौद्ध विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय (के अवशेषों) की परिक्रमा का अवसर मिला। विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्मपाल ने की थी। 8वीं शताब्दी से 12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक हुआ करता था। कहा जाता है कि यह अपने कुछेक अत्यंत अनूठे नवाचार के चलते उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। हालांकि, मान्यता यह भी है कि अल्प अवधि के लिए दोनों विश्वविद्यालय के बीच शिक्षण एवं प्रबंधन के क्षेत्रों में घनिष्ठ पारस्परिक संबंध एवं शिक्षकों के आदान-प्रदान का सिलसिला भी रहा था। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्रशास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा विख्यात था। इस विषय का एक सबसे विख्यात छात्र अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया। इसके प्रथम कुलपति ज्ञान अतिस थे।