सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Why humans should understand that origin and end of life is an unresolved query

By NS Venkataraman*  

Ever since the world happened and humans came into existence ( do anyone know when was it?), men and women have been enquiring as to from where human, animal, bird and other creatures have come into the world and where they would go after their life process.
While extraordinary developments have happened over last several centuries in science, technology, medicine and other areas, no one has been able to explain the origin and end of life with clarity. Scientists may say that humans and animals happen due to chemical reaction in the womb of the mother and humans, animals and other creatures disappear due to the decay of the cells in the body. This explanation is just a materialistic way of explaining away. This explanation is in vacuum, as it does not explain the fundamental factors.

Multiple religions and common advocacy

Historically, several sustained efforts have been put forth by humans all over the world to understand this origin and end process of life. As a result, several religions have sprung up that were founded by deep thinkers, who have tried to find an answer to this vexed question In their thought process, they evolved their own theories and postulations propagated them.. Thus came the reference to the so called hell, heaven, rebirths, resurrection, fate , miracles etc. as the possible happening either before the origin or after the end of life.
At the same time, there have also been those, who are described as atheists, who refuse to accept any of the versions advanced by religions. But, these non believers do not have anything better to explain and they end up only in disbelief of the views advocated by different saints and religious scholars and remain confused.
In short, all the religions provide an explanation for life and death process in a way that appear to be mostly similar to materialistic thinking. The religions stress that there is a creator ( termed as God whatever He may be and where ever He may be ), who has brought into existence humans, animals and other creatures. This explanation appeals to most section of the people, as they can readily appreciate the “logic” that the world could not have been created without a creator, just like a pot cannot be made without a potter.
All religions stress on need to worship God ( the creator) and lay out guidelines for living. One common theme in all religions is the advocacy of truth, love, compassion for everything around including animals, other creatures and even plantations. The religions say that this would lead to mental peace and pave way for realizing God.

Essence of Hindu philosophy

A dispassionate analysis of various religious doctrines which have several things in common would lead one to the conclusion that the Hindu philosophy comes nearest to offer an explanation for the origin and end process. That may not still be fully explained but may leave most people with a level of half clarity and half understanding.
The Hindu philosophy covers several aspects of human life , devising a way of living for people that will enable them to live in peace in life time and perhaps, move nearer to realization of God.
Yoga is a practice evolved by Hindu saints from historical times. Yoga is a preparatory exercise for meditation, that can ultimately lead to the state of such mental bliss, known as “Ananda”, which is the stage that Hindu religion ask everyone to strive to achieve.
Hindu philosophy is widely recognized and accepted as the oldest thought process evolved by humans which have been subsequently and continuously refined and perhaps, even modified by several great philosophers and saints like Adi Sankara, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Bhagwan Ramana Maharishi and others.
Adi Sankara fine tuned the Hindu philosophy and evolved Advaita concept, stating the two terms Jeevatma ( individual soul) and Paramatma (ultimate state ) and which are explained as really not different and are one and the same in essence. Adi Sankara says that the ultimate objective of human life should be to achieve a state where Jeevatma would unify itself with Paramatma , both of which are in the inner self of humans. Adi Sankara composed Upadesa Panchakam containing five verses that point out the ways and means of great path to truth, which is the state of realization of Paramatma. The last verse points out to quietening one’s mind towards Supreme Lord ( Paramatma) , Ekante Sukham Asyatam, which means Happiness is in solitude.
Aham Brahmasmi is the core philosophy in advaita vedanta, indicating absolute oneness of atman with brahman. (Paramatma).
Now, in recent years in living memory, Bhagawan Ramana Maharshi, one of the greatest saints that the world has seen, spoke eloquently on the subject and asked everyone to introspect “Who am I “? Bhagawan Ramana Maharshi also espoused the Advaita philosophy and asked people to meditate to realize “Who am I?” that would ultimately lead to bliss in the mindset , which is said to be the ultimate stage of realization of God in one self.
According to Hindu religion, as one goes deeper within, the true self is discovered and get connected to the cosmic consciousness. Certainly, this state call for shedding ego, greed and violent thoughts in individual, which will create a sense of peace and harmony in the mindset and enable everyone to live in absolute peace, which is otherwise called “Ananda” This is perhaps, the end point of Hindu religion’s goal.

Genuine Query

The point stressed by the great saints in every religion is that everyone should readily agree with the concept of what is termed as God without questioning or doubting and then try to realize God within oneself by meditation and deep and sustained thought process.
While such “strategies to realize God” are advocated by Hindu philosophy, one is really not sure whether any human has really achieved this state.
While there are great saints who have lived and may be still living, who could have succeeded to some extent in achieving such mental state by sustained meditation, it is doubtful as to how many persons could have really achieved such state in full even as they live in the world with all the manifestations in their living process in their own way. If at all anyone has achieved this, perhaps, it may be one in billion. What about others?
While the Hindu philosophy explains the origin and end of life in the most possible way, it still cannot explain fully as to how humans and animals and other creatures have happened and how they disappear after the life process. To explain this, some vague statements such as rebirth, resurrection etc. have been put forth which one can genuinely disbelieve.

If the religions say that complete explanation for origin and end of life is beyond human comprehension then, it may lead one to think that it is never clearly explained or unexplainable.
Kabir (1456 to 1525) one of the greatest philosophers and bold thinkers that India has produced said in his characteristic style “scholars, poet, philosophers and philanthropists with a variety of talents and gifts, can’t breakthrough the state of delusion. They read hymns, legends, epics and the laws but still miss the vital inner experience”.

Where do we go from here?

The advocacy of love and compassion pronounced by the religious doctrine that can be achieved by introspection, are the best way to follow and survive in the world until the human body perishes.
Hindu religion as well as a few other religions including Christianity advocate idol worship ( image worship ) which is appropriate for normal human beings to begin the process of introspection with the focus point of viewing the Idol as God. When the Idol is viewed as God and prayers chanted, then it inspires and take the individual to the higher level of introspection. Beginning with the process of idol worship the individual is enabled to reach a state where ego is shelved and mental peace is achieved and as state of Ananda gradually happen.

Unresolved Query

Aldouse Huxley, a famous thinker said “Using our limited intelligence, we think that we have the answers and clues to everything and every issue”.
There seem to be a general consensus that there is a limit beyond which the subject of origin and end of life cannot be discussed or debated. Can we call it as the limits of human intelligence?
Finally, let every human understand that origin and end of life is a unresolved query and it is a futile exercise to find an explanation with human intelligence being what it is.
*Trustee, Nandini Voice For The Deprived, Chennai



हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने कुछ परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली: प्रमुख प्रस्थापनायें

- राणा सिंह   भारत में परजीवियों का एक विशाल समूह है जो बोलता है कि “सब कुछ माया है”,  लेकिन व्यवहार में यह समूह सारी जिंदगी इसी “माया” के पीछे पागल रहता है।  प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने इन परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली थी।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

दाँव उल्टा पड़ा: राहुल गांधी के रूप में हम एक साधारण इंसान को नायक होते देख रहे हैं

-  अमिता नीरव  संघ औऱ बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी पर जो सोचकर ‘इन्वेस्ट’ किया था, उसके परिणाम गंभीर रूप से नुकसानदेह आ रहे हैं। ये थोड़ी अटपटी बात लग सकती है, लेकिन सोचिएगा कि संघ और बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी को जितना गंभीरता से लिया, उनकी संभावनाओं को लेकर वे जितना श्योर थे, उतना तो खुद राहुल और कांग्रेस भी नहीं थी।

बिहार के ऐतिहासिक विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय के खंडहरों की परिक्रमा का रोमांचक अवसर

- सुमन्त शरण  कुछ दिन पहले एक सुदूर ग्रामीण अंचल (पीरपैंती)  से तकरीबन डेढ़-दो घंटे की दूरी पर अवस्थित ऐतिहासिक बौद्ध विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय (के अवशेषों) की परिक्रमा का अवसर मिला। विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्मपाल ने की थी। 8वीं शताब्दी से 12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक हुआ करता था। कहा जाता है कि यह अपने कुछेक अत्यंत अनूठे नवाचार के चलते उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। हालांकि, मान्यता यह भी है कि अल्प अवधि के लिए दोनों विश्वविद्यालय के बीच शिक्षण एवं प्रबंधन के क्षेत्रों में घनिष्ठ पारस्परिक संबंध एवं शिक्षकों के आदान-प्रदान का सिलसिला भी रहा था। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्रशास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा विख्यात था। इस विषय का एक सबसे विख्यात छात्र अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया। इसके प्रथम कुलपति ज्ञान अतिस थे।