सीधे मुख्य सामग्री पर जाएं

Savitribai: teacher, mentor for shudras, atishudras, women, who fought injustice

By Vikas Parasram Meshram 
The renaissance of Maharashtra challenged Hindu religion, social order and traditions in the Reformation of Modern Indian Renaissance. Struggled to break the varna-caste system and end male dominance over women. Shudras and women led Maharashtra's renaissance. There were two pillars of this renaissance - Savitribai Phule and her husband Jotirao Phule.
Shudras and women were not considered equal in Hindu religion, social system and tradition. Hindu theology also says that – women and Shudras should not study. These were established beliefs and people of all castes followed them. The woman who first systematically challenged the Shudra, Atishudra and secondary position given to women in Hinduism, social order and tradition in modern India is Savitribai Phule. He fought for the emancipation of Shudras and Atishudras and for the emancipation of women throughout his life.
He was born on 3rd January 1831 in a village called Naigaon. It is located in Satara district of Maharashtra, which is near Pune. She was the eldest daughter of Khandoji Nevse Patil, who belonged to the Shudra caste according to the varna system. She was both a Shudra and a woman by birth, so her parents felt that she was born with the punishment of both. At a time when even a boy belonging to the Shudra caste was forbidden to get an education, there was no question of a girl born in the Shudra caste getting an education. She used to do household chores and help her father in the farm work. She saw the first book when she went to Shirwal market with other people of the village. He saw some foreign men and women praying to Jesus Christ under a tree. Curious, she stopped there as one of the men and women placed a booklet in her hand. Savitrabai was hesitant to take the booklet. The giver said take this booklet even if you don't know how to read. See the pictures printed in it. Savitri Bai brought that booklet with her.
At the age of 9, she got married to 13-year-old Jotirao Phule, and when she moved from her home to Jotirao Phule's house, she brought the booklet with her.
Jyoti Rao Phule, Savitribai Phule, besides being his life partner, also became his guru. Savitribai Phule received her formal education in Ahmednagar after receiving her primary education under the supervision of Jyotirao Phule and Sagunabai. After that he took training from Teacher Training Institute in Pune. Along with him, Fatima Shaikh also took teaching training in this training school. This is where they became close friends. Fatima Sheikh was the sister of Usman Sheikh, a close friend and associate of Jotirao Phule. Later, both of them did teaching work together.
The Phule couple opened the first school for girls in Pune on 1 January 1848. On 15 May 1848, when Jyotirao Phule opened a school at Bhidewada in Pune, Savitribai Phule became the headmistress. The doors of these schools were open to all castes and religions. The number of schools opened by Jotirao Phule and Savitribai Phule for the education of girls was increasing. Within four years, their number reached 18.
These steps of the Phule couple were a direct challenge to Brahminism. It was challenging their monopoly, which was cracking down on their dominance over society. Jotirao Phule's father, Govindrao, was put under intense pressure by the priests. Govindrao became weak before the priest and society. He asked Jotirao Phule to either stop teaching at the school with his wife or go home. Like a history-making hero, sad and heavy-hearted, Jyotirao Phule and Savitribai Phule decided to leave home for the emancipation of Shudras, Atishudras and women.
After being ostracized from the family, Brahminical forces continued to harass Savitribai Phule and placed many obstacles in her way. When Savitribai Phule went to teach school, the villagers used to throw stones and dung at her. Savitribai stopped and humbly said, 'Brother, I am doing a good job teaching your sisters. The stones and dung you throw cannot stop me, rather they inspire me. It feels like we are showering flowers. I will continue to serve my sisters with determination. I will pray that God bless you.'' After going to school, she used to change her saree. Along with education, the Phule couple started focusing on other problems of the society. The worst condition was that of widows. These were mostly upper caste. Most of them belong to Brahmin families. Often these widows either commit suicide while pregnant or abandon the child they have given birth to. In 1863, the Phule family started a home to prevent infanticide. Any widow can come here and give birth to her child. His name was withheld.
Posters of this Child Murder Prevention Home were put up in many places. These posters were written, 'Widows! Stay anonymous here and deliver your baby without any problems. Take your child with you or keep it here, it depends on your wishes.''
Savitribai Phule herself took care of the women who came to the Child Homicide Prevention Home and the children born there. Similarly, the Phule couple raised the son of Kashibai, a Brahmin widow, as their own. whose name was Yashwant. Jyoti Rao Phule founded Satyashodak Samaj for social change in 1873. After his death, the leadership of Satya Shodhak Samaj was handed over to Savitribai Phule. He headed it from 1891 to 1897. He also played an important role in the implementation of Satyashodak marriage system.
Savitribai Phule was an important modern Marathi poetess. His first poetry collection, Kavya Phule, was published in 1854, when he was 23 years old. In 1892, his second poetry collection 'Bavan Kashi Subodh Ratnakar' was published. It is a collection of fifty two poems. He has dedicated this writing to the memory of Jyotirao Phule. Savitribai Phule's speeches were also published in 1892. Apart from this, the letters written by him are also very important. These letters bring forward the thoughts about the situation, people's mindset, Savitribai's thinking and Phule.
In 1896 there was a drought again in Pune and its surroundings. Savitribai Phule worked day and night to help the drought victims. He pressed the government to provide massive relief materials to the drought victims. Mata Savitribai, a teacher and mentor for Shudras, Atishudras and women, spent her life constantly fighting injustice and establishing justice. He also died while doing social service.
In 1897, an epidemic of plague spread in Pune. She enjoyed healing and serving people. She herself became a victim of this disease. He died on 10 March 1897. Even after his death, his work and thoughts continue to guide the nation like a torch.



हिंदी आलोचना जैसे पिछड़ चुके अनुशासन की जगह हिंदी वैचारिकी का विकास जरूरी

- प्रमोद रंजन*   भारतीय राजनीति में सांप्रदायिक व प्रतिक्रियावादी ताकतों को सत्ता तक पहुंचाने में हिंदी पट्टी का सबसे बड़ा योगदान है। इसका मुख्य कारण हिंदी-पट्टी में कार्यरत समाजवादी व जनपक्षधर हिरावल दस्ते का विचारहीन, अनैतिक और  प्रतिक्रियावादी होते जाना है। अगर हम उपरोक्त बातों को स्वीकार करते हैं, तो कुछ रोचक निष्कर्ष निकलते हैं। हिंदी-जनता और उसके हिरावल दस्ते को विचारहीन और प्रतिक्रियावादी बनने से रोकने की मुख्य ज़िम्मेदारी किसकी थी?

ગુજરાતના સ્થાપના દિવસે યાદ કરીએ ભારતના વિશ્વપ્રસિદ્ધ ગુજરાતી પુરાતત્વવિદ્ ને

- ગૌરાંગ જાની*  આજે કોઈ ગુજરાતી એ કલ્પના પણ ન કરી શકે કે વર્ષ ૧૮૩૯ માં જૂનાગઢમાં જન્મેલા એક ગુજરાતી વિશ્વ પ્રસિદ્ધ બની શકે! પણ આપણે એ ગુજરાતીને કદાચ વિસરી ગયા છીએ જેમણે ગિરનારના અશોક શિલાલેખને દોઢસો વર્ષ પૂર્વે ઉકેલી આપ્યો.આ વિદ્વાન એટલે ભગવાનલાલ ઈન્દ્રજી. ૭ નવેમ્બર, ૧૮૩૯ ના દિવસે જૂનાગઢના પ્રશ્નોરા નાગર બ્રાહ્મણ પરિવારમાં તેમનો જન્મ થયો હતો. જૂનાગઢના એ સમયે અંગ્રેજી શિક્ષણની સગવડ ન હોવાને કારણે તેમને અંગ્રેજી ભાષાનું જ્ઞાન ન હતું પણ પાછળથી તેમણે ખપ પૂરતું અંગ્રેજી જાણી લીધું હતું.

Under Modi, democracy is regressing and economy is also growing slowly

By Avyaan Sharma*   India is "the largest democracy in the world", but now its democracy is regressing and its economy is also growing slowly. What has PM Modi's ten years in power brought us? Unemployment remains high. Joblessness is particularly high among India's youth - with those aged 15 to 29 making up a staggering 83% of all unemployed people in India, according to the "India Employment Report 2024", published last month by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD). The BJP-led government did not provide jobs to two crore youth in a year as was promised by Modi in the run up to the 2014 general elections.

नफरती बातें: मुसलमानों में असुरक्षा का भाव बढ़ रहा है, वे अपने मोहल्लों में सिमट रहे हैं

- राम पुनियानी*  भारत पर पिछले 10 सालों से हिन्दू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) राज कर रही है. भाजपा आरएसएस परिवार की सदस्य है और आरएसएस का लक्ष्य है हिन्दू राष्ट्र का निर्माण. आरएसएस से जुड़ी सैंकड़ों संस्थाएँ हैं. उसके लाखों, बल्कि शायद, करोड़ों स्वयंसेवक हैं. इसके अलावा कई हजार वरिष्ठ कार्यकर्ता हैं जिन्हें प्रचारक कहा जाता है. भाजपा के सत्ता में आने के बाद से आरएसएस दुगनी गति से हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के अपने एजेण्डे को पूरा करने में जुट गया है. यदि भाजपा को चुनावों में लगातार सफलता हासिल हो रही है तो उसका कारण है देश में साम्प्रदायिकता और साम्प्रदायिक मुद्दों का बढ़ता बोलबाला. इनमें से कुछ हैं राम मंदिर, गौमांस और गोवध एवं लव जिहाद. 

Laxmanpur Bathe massacre: Perfect example of proto-fascist Brahmanical social order

By Harsh Thakor  The massacre at Laxmanpur-Bathe of Jehanabad in Bihar on the night of 1 December in 1997 was a landmark event with distinguishing features .The genocide rightly shook the conscience of the nation in the 50th year of Indian independence. The scale of the carnage was unparalleled in any caste massacre. It was a perfect manifestation of how in essence the so called neo-liberal state was in essence most autocratic. 

रैंकिंग: अधिकांश भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिरा, इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी

- प्रमोद रंजन*  अप्रैल, 2024 में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर उच्च रैंकिंग की चर्चा रही। मीडिया ने इसका उत्सव मनाया। लेकिन स्थिति इसके विपरीत है। वैश्विक विश्वविद्यालय रैंकिग में अच्छा स्थान मिलने की खबरें, कुछ संस्थानों को इक्का-दुक्का विषयों में मिले रैंक के आधार पर चुनिंदा ढंग से प्रकाशित की गईं थीं। वास्तविकता यह है कि हाल के वर्षों में हमारे अधिकांश विश्वविद्यालयों का स्तर बहुत गिर गया है। इस साल भी यह गिरवाट जारी रही है।

प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने कुछ परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली: प्रमुख प्रस्थापनायें

- राणा सिंह   भारत में परजीवियों का एक विशाल समूह है जो बोलता है कि “सब कुछ माया है”,  लेकिन व्यवहार में यह समूह सारी जिंदगी इसी “माया” के पीछे पागल रहता है।  प्राचीन भारत के लोकायत संप्रदाय ने इन परजीवियों की खूब खबर ली थी।

नोएडा में मैन्युअल स्कैवेंजर्स की मौत: परिवारों को मुआवजा नहीं, प्राधिकरण ने एफआईआर नहीं की

- अरुण खोटे, संजीव कुमार*  गत एक सप्ताह में, उत्तर प्रदेश में सीवर/सेप्टि क टैंक सफाई कर्मियों की सफाई के दौरान सेप्टिक टैंक में मौत। 2 मई, 2024 को, लखनऊ के वज़ीरगजं क्षेत्र में एक सेवर लाइन की सफाई करते समय शोब्रान यादव, 56, और उनके पत्रु सशुील यादव, 28, घटुन से हुई मौत। एक और घटना 3 मई 2024 को नोएडा, सेक्टर 26 में एक घर में सेप्टि क टैंक को सफाई करते समय दो सफाई कर्मचर्मारी नूनी मडंल, 36 और कोकन मडंल जिसे तपन मडंल के नाम से जानते हैं, की मौत हो गई। ये सफाई कर्मचर्मारी बंगाल के मालदा जिले के निवासी थे और नोएडा सेक्टर 9 में रहते थे। कोकन मडंल अपनी पत्नी अनीता मडंल के साथ रहते थे। इनके तीन स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे हैं जो बंगाल में रहते हैं। नूनी मडंल अपनी पत्नी लिलिका मडंल और अपने पत्रु सजुान के साथ किराए पर झग्गी में रहते थे। वे दैनिक मजदरूी और सफाई कर्मचर्मारी के रूप में काम करते थे।

दाँव उल्टा पड़ा: राहुल गांधी के रूप में हम एक साधारण इंसान को नायक होते देख रहे हैं

-  अमिता नीरव  संघ औऱ बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी पर जो सोचकर ‘इन्वेस्ट’ किया था, उसके परिणाम गंभीर रूप से नुकसानदेह आ रहे हैं। ये थोड़ी अटपटी बात लग सकती है, लेकिन सोचिएगा कि संघ और बीजेपी ने राहुल गाँधी को जितना गंभीरता से लिया, उनकी संभावनाओं को लेकर वे जितना श्योर थे, उतना तो खुद राहुल और कांग्रेस भी नहीं थी।

बिहार के ऐतिहासिक विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय के खंडहरों की परिक्रमा का रोमांचक अवसर

- सुमन्त शरण  कुछ दिन पहले एक सुदूर ग्रामीण अंचल (पीरपैंती)  से तकरीबन डेढ़-दो घंटे की दूरी पर अवस्थित ऐतिहासिक बौद्ध विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय (के अवशेषों) की परिक्रमा का अवसर मिला। विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्मपाल ने की थी। 8वीं शताब्दी से 12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक हुआ करता था। कहा जाता है कि यह अपने कुछेक अत्यंत अनूठे नवाचार के चलते उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। हालांकि, मान्यता यह भी है कि अल्प अवधि के लिए दोनों विश्वविद्यालय के बीच शिक्षण एवं प्रबंधन के क्षेत्रों में घनिष्ठ पारस्परिक संबंध एवं शिक्षकों के आदान-प्रदान का सिलसिला भी रहा था। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्रशास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा विख्यात था। इस विषय का एक सबसे विख्यात छात्र अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया। इसके प्रथम कुलपति ज्ञान अतिस थे।